Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of articular cartilage reveals significant epigenetic alterations in Kashin-Beck disease and osteoarthritis.Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2017 12; 25(12):2127-2133.OC
To determine genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of knee cartilage from patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and osteoarthritis (OA).
Knee cartilage was collected from 14 grade III KBD patients, 5 primary OA patients and 13 healthy subjects. The genome-wide methylation profiles of 5 KBD cartilage, 5 OA cartilage and 5 normal cartilage were determined by Illumina HumanMethylation450 array. Illumina Methylation Analyzer package was employed for identifying differentially methylated CpG sites. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis of differentially methylated genes (DMG) were conducted using GeneRIF database, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Mass spectrometry (MS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were conducted to validate the functional relevance of identified KBD associated gene.
We identified a total of 1212 differentially methylated CpG sites in KBD vs Normal, annotated to 264 hypermethylated and 368 hypomethylated genes. Comparing the DNA methylation profiles of KBD vs Normal and OA vs Normal detected overlap of 367 differentially methylated CpG sites (annotated to 182 genes) as well as 845 KBD-specific differentially methylated CpG sites (annotated to 471 unique genes). MS and IHC confirmed the hypermethylation status and decreased protein expression of HAPLN1 gene in KBD cartilage.
Our data implicate epigenetic dysregulation of a host of genes in KBD and OA. Furthermore, we observed common causal epigenetic changes shared by KBD and OA.