Single Dose and Repeat Once-Daily Dose Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Valbenazine in Healthy Male Subjects.Psychopharmacol Bull. 2017 08 01; 47(3):44-52.PB
Valbenazine (VBZ) is a vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. The safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of VBZ following single and repeat once-daily (QD) dosing were evaluated in 2 randomized, single-center, double-blind studies in healthy male subjects. In the first study, 2 cohorts of 8 subjects were administered single doses (SD) of placebo (PBO; N = 2/period) or VBZ (N = 6/period; 1, 2, 5, or 12.5 mg for Cohort 1 and 12.5, 25, 50, or 75 mg for Cohort 2) using a sequential escalation scheme. The second study consisted of 2 phases. In the initial phase, subjects were administered SD PBO (N = 2/period) or VBZ (N = 6/period; 75, 100, 125 or 150 mg) with sequential escalation. In the second phase, subjects received PBO, or 50 or 100 mg VBZ (N = 4:8:8) QD for 8 days (Cohort 1) or PBO or 50 mg VBZ (N = 6:6) QD for 8 days (Cohort 2). For both studies, plasma concentrations of VBZ and its active metabolite, NBI-98782, were determined. Safety was assessed throughout the studies. PK parameters were determined using noncompartmental methods. In both studies, VBZ was rapidly absorbed with peak concentrations typically observed within 1.5 hours. Peak NBI-98782 concentrations were typically observed at 4.0 to 9.0 hours. Terminal elimination half-life for both VBZ and NBI-98782 was ~20 hours. Across the 1 to 150 mg SD range evaluated across the studies, VBZ and NBI-98782 Cmax and AUC increased dose-proportionally from 50 to 150 mg and more than dose-proportionally from 1 to 50 mg. QD VBZ and NBI-98782 Cmax and AUC parameters were also dose-proportional between the 50 and 100 mg doses. Steady-state for both analytes appeared to be achieved by Day 8. The accumulation index was ~1.5 for VBZ and ~2.5 for NBI-98782. Peak to trough fluctuation was approximately 250% for VBZ and 70% for NBI-98782. Across both studies, NBI-98782 exposure was approximately 20%-30% that of VBZ based on molar ratios. In the first study, the maximum-tolerated dose was not achieved; headache (2 events) was the only treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) reported by more than one subject. In the second study, fatigue (4 events) was the only TEAE reported by more than one subject following SD VBZ. Following QD VBZ, the TEAEs of fatigue, insomnia, disturbance in attention, and nervousness were dose-dependent; the latter three TEAEs were considered dose-limiting. Subject withdrawals due to TEAEs were 1 each for PBO and 50 mg VBZ QD, and 3 for 100 mg VBZ QD. Clinically relevant effects on laboratory parameters, vital signs or ECGs were limited to increased CPK (SD: 1 each for 5 mg VBZ and PBO), ALT (QD: 1 each for 50 and 100 mg VBZ and PBO), and triglycerides (QD: 1 each for 50 mg VBZ and PBO). VBZ has an acceptable safety profile and predictable pharmacokinetics that result in stable concentrations of active compounds with low peak-to-trough fluctuation following once-daily dosing.