Carvedilol Inhibits Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activation in Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis: Possibilities of Cardioprotective Application.J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Jan; 23(1):89-97.JC
Acute myocarditis is a potentially lethal inflammatory heart disease that frequently precedes the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and subsequent heart failure. At present, there is no effective standardized therapy for acute myocarditis, besides the optimal care of heart failure and arrhythmias in accordance with evidence-based guidelines and specific etiology-driven therapy for infectious myocarditis. Carvedilol has been shown to be cardioprotective by reducing cardiac pro-inflammatory cytokines present in oxidative stress in certain heart diseases. However, effects of carvedilol administration in acute myocarditis with its impact on matrix metalloproteinases' (MMPs) activation have not been elucidated.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Carvedilol in 3 doses (2, 10, and 30 mg/kg) was given daily to 3 study groups of rats (n = 8) with experimental autoimmune myocarditis by gastric gavage for 3 weeks. In comparison to untreated rats (n = 8) with induced myocarditis, carvedilol significantly prevented the left ventricle enlargement and/or systolic dysfunction depending on the dose in study groups. Performed zymography showed enhanced MMP-2 activity in untreated rats, while carvedilol administration reduced alterations. This was accompanied by prevention of troponin I release and myofilaments degradation in cardiac muscle tissue. Additionally, severe inflammatory cell infiltration was detected in the nontreated group. Carvedilol in all doses tested, had no impact on severity of inflammation. The severity of inflammation did not differ between study groups and in relation to the untreated group.
The protective effects of carvedilol on heart function observed in the acute phase of experimental autoimmune myocarditis seem to be associated with its ability to decrease MMP-2 activity and subsequently prevent degradation of myofilaments and release of troponin I while not related to suppression of inflammation.