Resolution of R-(-) and S-(+)- enantiomers of clenbuterol in pharmaceutical preparations and black-market products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.Drug Test Anal. 2017 Nov; 9(11-12):1738-1743.DT
Several banned substances are illegally used by athletes in racemic mixtures for performance enhancement. These include clenbuterol, methyl hexaneamine, methamphetamines, and amphetamines. Clenbuterol is present in a large number of doping samples from Olympic and non-Olympic athletes that have adverse analytical findings (AAFs). In some cases, the presence of these substances could be the result of consumption of meat contaminated with clenbuterol. In other cases, the origin is not clear. In this study, 27 products with racemic clenbuterol were evaluated using a new analytical methodology for the resolution of R-(-) and S-(+)-enantiomers of clenbuterol by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using a chiral column in 15 min with good separation. The method developed can also be used for the analysis of other biological matrices such as urine, serum, and meat. The resolution between two peaks' (Rs) value obtained using chromatographic data was 1.03. Both clenbuterol enantiomers were present in all products analyzed and the ratio was nearly 1. The origin of the product was not important for determining the presence of one or both enantiomers. All products displayed a 50:50 ratio of clenbuterol enantiomers. To the best of our knowledge, clenbuterol ratio determination of a large number of pharmaceutical preparations and black-market products has not been reported previously. The information shown could be used by national anti-doping organizations and the athletes with AAFs attributed to clenbuterol. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.