No. 261-Prenatal Screening for Fetal Aneuploidy in Singleton Pregnancies.Ginekol Pol 2017; 39(9):e380-e394GP
To develop a Canadian consensus document on maternal screening for fetal aneuploidy (e.g., Down syndrome and trisomy 18) in singleton pregnancies.
To offer non-invasive screening for fetal aneuploidy (trisomy 13, 18, 21) to all pregnant women. Invasive prenatal diagnosis would be offered to women who screen above a set risk cut-off level on non-invasive screening or to pregnant women whose personal, obstetrical, or family history places them at increased risk. Currently available non-invasive screening options include maternal age combined with one of the following: (1) first trimester screening (nuchal translucency, maternal age, and maternal serum biochemical markers), (2) second trimester serum screening (maternal age and maternal serum biochemical markers), or (3) 2-step integrated screening, which includes first and second trimester serum screening with or without nuchal translucency (integrated prenatal screen, serum integrated prenatal screening, contingent, and sequential). These options are reviewed, and recommendations are made.
Studies published between 1982 and 2009 were retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline and CINAHL and the Cochrane Library, using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (aneuploidy, Down syndrome, trisomy, prenatal screening, genetic health risk, genetic health surveillance, prenatal diagnosis). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and relevant observational studies. There were no language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to August 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment- related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The previous Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada guidelines regarding prenatal screening were also reviewed in developing this clinical practice guideline.
The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.
BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS
This guideline is intended to reduce the number of prenatal invasive procedures done when maternal age is the only indication. This will have the benefit of reducing the numbers of normal pregnancies lost because of complications of invasive procedures. Any screening test has an inherent false- positive rate, which may result in undue anxiety. It is not possible at this time to undertake a detailed cost-benefit analysis of the implementation of this guideline, since this would require health surveillance and research and health resources not presently available; however, these factors need to be evaluated in a prospective approach by provincial and territorial initiatives.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
DNA from amniocytes (94 cases) and trophoblast cells (6 cases) was analyzed witt QF-PCR according to the manufacturer's protocol. The obtained products were separated using ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer and the resulting data were analyzed using GeneMarker software.
The results of QF-PCR were obtained in 95 out of 100 cases (95%). Abnormalities were found in 28 casea (29.5%). All these results were confirmed in subsequent cytogenetic analysis. Normal results were obtained in 62 patients (70.5%). However in that group, we found three chromosomal aberrations other than those analyzed b3 QF-PCR. Additionally two abnormal and three normal karyotypes were found in patients with inconclusive QF-POF results.
QF-PCR is a fast and reliable tool for chromosomal aneuploidy analysis and can be used as the only method without a full analysis of the karyotype, but only in cases of suspected fetal 13, 18, 21 trisomy or numerica aberrations of X chromosome. In other cases, fetal karyotype analysis from cells obtained after cell culture should be offered to the patient.