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Electrochemical treatment of penicillin, cephalosporin, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics via active chlorine: evaluation of antimicrobial activity, toxicity, matrix, and their correlation with the degradation pathways.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Oct; 24(30):23771-23782.ES

Abstract

Antibiotics are pharmaceuticals widely consumed and frequently detected in environmental water, where they can induce toxic effects and development of resistant bacteria. Their structural variety makes the problem of antibiotics in natural water more complex. In this work, six highly used antibiotics (at 40 μmol L-1) belonging to three different classes (penicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones) were treated using an electrochemical system with a Ti/IrO2 anode and a Zr cathode in the presence of NaCl (0.05 μmol L-1). The attack of electrogenerated active chlorine was found to be the main degradation route. After only 20 min of treatment, the process decreased more than 90% of the initial concentration of antibiotics, following the degradation order: fluoroquinolones > penicillins > cephalosporins. The primary interactions of the degrading agent with fluoroquinolones occurred at the cyclic amine (i.e., piperazyl ring) and the benzene ring. Meanwhile, the cephalosporins and penicillins were initially attacked on the β-lactam and sulfide groups. However, the tested penicillins presented an additional reaction on the central amide. In all cases, the transformations of antibiotics led to the antimicrobial activity decreasing. On the contrary, the toxicity level showed diverse results: increasing, decreasing, and no change, depending on the antibiotic type. In fact, due to the conservation of quinolone nucleus in the fluoroquinolone by-products, the toxicity of the treated solutions remained unchanged. With penicillins, the production of chloro-phenyl-isoxazole fragments increased the toxicity level of the resultant solution. However, the opening of β-lactam ring of cephalosporin antibiotics decreased the toxicity level of the treated solutions. Finally, the application of the treatment to synthetic hospital wastewater and seawater containing a representative antibiotic showed that the high amount of chloride ions in seawater accelerates the pollutant degradation. In contrast, the urea and ammonium presence in the hospital wastewater retarded the removal of this pharmaceutical.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis (GIRAB), Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín, Colombia.Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis (GIRAB), Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín, Colombia.Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis (GIRAB), Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín, Colombia. ricardo.torres@udea.edu.co.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28864919

Citation

Serna-Galvis, Efraím A., et al. "Electrochemical Treatment of Penicillin, Cephalosporin, and Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Via Active Chlorine: Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity, Matrix, and Their Correlation With the Degradation Pathways." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 24, no. 30, 2017, pp. 23771-23782.
Serna-Galvis EA, Berrio-Perlaza KE, Torres-Palma RA. Electrochemical treatment of penicillin, cephalosporin, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics via active chlorine: evaluation of antimicrobial activity, toxicity, matrix, and their correlation with the degradation pathways. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(30):23771-23782.
Serna-Galvis, E. A., Berrio-Perlaza, K. E., & Torres-Palma, R. A. (2017). Electrochemical treatment of penicillin, cephalosporin, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics via active chlorine: evaluation of antimicrobial activity, toxicity, matrix, and their correlation with the degradation pathways. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 24(30), 23771-23782. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9985-2
Serna-Galvis EA, Berrio-Perlaza KE, Torres-Palma RA. Electrochemical Treatment of Penicillin, Cephalosporin, and Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Via Active Chlorine: Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity, Matrix, and Their Correlation With the Degradation Pathways. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(30):23771-23782. PubMed PMID: 28864919.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Electrochemical treatment of penicillin, cephalosporin, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics via active chlorine: evaluation of antimicrobial activity, toxicity, matrix, and their correlation with the degradation pathways. AU - Serna-Galvis,Efraím A, AU - Berrio-Perlaza,Karen E, AU - Torres-Palma,Ricardo A, Y1 - 2017/09/01/ PY - 2017/01/16/received PY - 2017/08/21/accepted PY - 2017/9/3/pubmed PY - 2018/8/31/medline PY - 2017/9/3/entrez KW - Antibiotics removal KW - Complex matrices KW - DSA anodes KW - Reactivity to active chlorine KW - Water treatment SP - 23771 EP - 23782 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 24 IS - 30 N2 - Antibiotics are pharmaceuticals widely consumed and frequently detected in environmental water, where they can induce toxic effects and development of resistant bacteria. Their structural variety makes the problem of antibiotics in natural water more complex. In this work, six highly used antibiotics (at 40 μmol L-1) belonging to three different classes (penicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones) were treated using an electrochemical system with a Ti/IrO2 anode and a Zr cathode in the presence of NaCl (0.05 μmol L-1). The attack of electrogenerated active chlorine was found to be the main degradation route. After only 20 min of treatment, the process decreased more than 90% of the initial concentration of antibiotics, following the degradation order: fluoroquinolones > penicillins > cephalosporins. The primary interactions of the degrading agent with fluoroquinolones occurred at the cyclic amine (i.e., piperazyl ring) and the benzene ring. Meanwhile, the cephalosporins and penicillins were initially attacked on the β-lactam and sulfide groups. However, the tested penicillins presented an additional reaction on the central amide. In all cases, the transformations of antibiotics led to the antimicrobial activity decreasing. On the contrary, the toxicity level showed diverse results: increasing, decreasing, and no change, depending on the antibiotic type. In fact, due to the conservation of quinolone nucleus in the fluoroquinolone by-products, the toxicity of the treated solutions remained unchanged. With penicillins, the production of chloro-phenyl-isoxazole fragments increased the toxicity level of the resultant solution. However, the opening of β-lactam ring of cephalosporin antibiotics decreased the toxicity level of the treated solutions. Finally, the application of the treatment to synthetic hospital wastewater and seawater containing a representative antibiotic showed that the high amount of chloride ions in seawater accelerates the pollutant degradation. In contrast, the urea and ammonium presence in the hospital wastewater retarded the removal of this pharmaceutical. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28864919/Electrochemical_treatment_of_penicillin_cephalosporin_and_fluoroquinolone_antibiotics_via_active_chlorine:_evaluation_of_antimicrobial_activity_toxicity_matrix_and_their_correlation_with_the_degradation_pathways_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9985-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -