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Highly porous scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for bone tissue engineering.
Acta Biomater. 2017 10 15; 62:91-101.AB

Abstract

Conjugated polymers have been increasingly considered for the design of conductive materials in the field of regenerative medicine. However, optimal scaffold properties addressing the complexity of the desired tissue still need to be developed. The focus of this study lies in the development and evaluation of a conductive scaffold for bone tissue engineering. In this study PEDOT:PSS scaffolds were designed and evaluated in vitro using MC3T3-E1 osteogenic precursor cells, and the cells were assessed for distinct differentiation stages and the expression of an osteogenic phenotype. Ice-templated PEDOT:PSS scaffolds presented high pore interconnectivity with a median pore diameter of 53.6±5.9µm and a total pore surface area of 7.72±1.7m2·g-1. The electrical conductivity, based on I-V curves, was measured to be 140µS·cm-1 with a reduced, but stable conductivity of 6.1µS·cm-1 after 28days in cell culture media. MC3T3-E1 gene expression levels of ALPL, COL1A1 and RUNX2 were significantly enhanced after 4weeks, in line with increased extracellular matrix mineralisation, and osteocalcin deposition. These results demonstrate that a porous material, based purely on PEDOT:PSS, is suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering and thus represents a promising candidate for regenerative medicine.

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE

Tissue engineering approaches have been increasingly considered for the repair of non-union fractions, craniofacial reconstruction or large bone defect replacements. The design of complex biomaterials and successful engineering of 3-dimensional tissue constructs is of paramount importance to meet this clinical need. Conductive scaffolds, based on conjugated polymers, present interesting candidates to address the piezoelectric properties of bone tissue and to induce enhanced osteogenesis upon implantation. However, conductive scaffolds have not been investigated in vitro in great measure. To this end, we have developed a highly porous, electrically conductive scaffold based on PEDOT:PSS, and provide evidence that this purely synthetic material is a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Materials, Department of Bioengineering and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom; National Lung and Heart Institute, Imperial College London, 435 Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom. Electronic address: ag.guex@gmail.com.Department of Materials, Department of Bioengineering and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: j.puetzer@imperial.ac.uk.Department of Materials, Department of Bioengineering and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: astrid.armgarth11@imperial.ac.uk.Department of Materials, Department of Bioengineering and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: e.littmann@imperial.ac.uk.Department of Materials, Department of Bioengineering and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: eleni.stavrinidou@liu.se.Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Cornell University, 176 Kimball Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States. Electronic address: epg2@cornell.edu.Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, Centre Microélectronique de Provence, 880 Route de Mimet, 13541 Gardanne, France. Electronic address: malliaras@emse.fr.Department of Materials, Department of Bioengineering and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom. Electronic address: m.stevens@imperial.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28865991

Citation

Guex, Anne Géraldine, et al. "Highly Porous Scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for Bone Tissue Engineering." Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 62, 2017, pp. 91-101.
Guex AG, Puetzer JL, Armgarth A, et al. Highly porous scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for bone tissue engineering. Acta Biomater. 2017;62:91-101.
Guex, A. G., Puetzer, J. L., Armgarth, A., Littmann, E., Stavrinidou, E., Giannelis, E. P., Malliaras, G. G., & Stevens, M. M. (2017). Highly porous scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for bone tissue engineering. Acta Biomaterialia, 62, 91-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2017.08.045
Guex AG, et al. Highly Porous Scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for Bone Tissue Engineering. Acta Biomater. 2017 10 15;62:91-101. PubMed PMID: 28865991.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Highly porous scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for bone tissue engineering. AU - Guex,Anne Géraldine, AU - Puetzer,Jennifer L, AU - Armgarth,Astrid, AU - Littmann,Elena, AU - Stavrinidou,Eleni, AU - Giannelis,Emmanuel P, AU - Malliaras,George G, AU - Stevens,Molly M, Y1 - 2017/09/01/ PY - 2017/03/17/received PY - 2017/08/24/revised PY - 2017/08/29/accepted PY - 2017/9/4/pubmed PY - 2018/5/24/medline PY - 2017/9/4/entrez KW - Bone tissue engineering KW - Conductive scaffolds KW - PEDOT:PSS KW - Porosity SP - 91 EP - 101 JF - Acta biomaterialia JO - Acta Biomater VL - 62 N2 - : Conjugated polymers have been increasingly considered for the design of conductive materials in the field of regenerative medicine. However, optimal scaffold properties addressing the complexity of the desired tissue still need to be developed. The focus of this study lies in the development and evaluation of a conductive scaffold for bone tissue engineering. In this study PEDOT:PSS scaffolds were designed and evaluated in vitro using MC3T3-E1 osteogenic precursor cells, and the cells were assessed for distinct differentiation stages and the expression of an osteogenic phenotype. Ice-templated PEDOT:PSS scaffolds presented high pore interconnectivity with a median pore diameter of 53.6±5.9µm and a total pore surface area of 7.72±1.7m2·g-1. The electrical conductivity, based on I-V curves, was measured to be 140µS·cm-1 with a reduced, but stable conductivity of 6.1µS·cm-1 after 28days in cell culture media. MC3T3-E1 gene expression levels of ALPL, COL1A1 and RUNX2 were significantly enhanced after 4weeks, in line with increased extracellular matrix mineralisation, and osteocalcin deposition. These results demonstrate that a porous material, based purely on PEDOT:PSS, is suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering and thus represents a promising candidate for regenerative medicine. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Tissue engineering approaches have been increasingly considered for the repair of non-union fractions, craniofacial reconstruction or large bone defect replacements. The design of complex biomaterials and successful engineering of 3-dimensional tissue constructs is of paramount importance to meet this clinical need. Conductive scaffolds, based on conjugated polymers, present interesting candidates to address the piezoelectric properties of bone tissue and to induce enhanced osteogenesis upon implantation. However, conductive scaffolds have not been investigated in vitro in great measure. To this end, we have developed a highly porous, electrically conductive scaffold based on PEDOT:PSS, and provide evidence that this purely synthetic material is a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering. SN - 1878-7568 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28865991/Highly_porous_scaffolds_of_PEDOT:PSS_for_bone_tissue_engineering_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1742-7061(17)30559-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -