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Polarity based characterization of biologically active extracts of Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. and RP-HPLC analysis.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Sep 05; 17(1):443.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The concept of botanical therapeutics has revitalized due to wide importance of plant derived pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the ameliorative characteristics of Ajuga bracteosa were studied.

METHODS

Total phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity, reducing power and free-radical scavenging activity were determined colorimetrically. Specific polyphenols were quantified by RP-HPLC analysis. Preliminary cytotoxicity was tested using brine shrimp lethality assay while antiproliferative activity against THP-1 and Hep-G2 cell lines was determined by MTT and SRB protocols respectively. Antileishmanial potential was assessed via MTT colorimetric method. To investigate antidiabetic prospect, α-amylase inhibition assay was adopted whereas disc diffusion method was used to detect likely protein kinase inhibitory, antibacterial and antifungal activities.

RESULTS

Among fifteen different extracts, maximum total phenolic content (10.75 ± 0.70 μg GAE/mg DW), total reducing power (23.90 ± 0.70 μg AAE/mg DW) and total antioxidant capacity (11.30 ± 0.80 μg AAE/mg DW) were exhibited by methanol extract with superlative percent extract recovery (17.50 ± 0.80% w/w). Chloroform-methanol extract demonstrated maximum flavonoid content (4.10 ± 0.40 μg QE/mg DW) and ethanol extract exhibited greatest radical scavenging activity (IC50 14.40 ± 0.20 μg/ml). RP-HPLC based quantification confirmed polyphenols such as pyrocatechol, gallic acid, resorcinol, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, coumarin, sinapinic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, rutin, quercetin and kaempferol. The brine shrimp lethality assay ranked 78.60% extracts as cytotoxic (LC50 ≤ 250 μg/ml) whereas significant THP-1 inhibition was shown by methanol-acetone extract (IC50 4.70 ± 0.43 μg/ml). The antiproliferative activity against Hep-G2 hepatoma cancer cell line was demonstrated by n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol-distilled water (IC50 8.65-8.95 μg/ml) extracts. Methanol extract displayed prominent protein kinase inhibitory activity (MIC 12.5 μg/disc) while n-hexane extract revealed remarkable antileishmanial activity (IC50 4.69 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The antidiabetic potential was confirmed by n-hexane extract (44.70 ± 0.30% α-amylase inhibition at 200 μg/ml concentration) while a moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities were unveiled.

CONCLUSION

The variation in biological spectrum resulted due to use of multiple solvent systems for extraction. We also deduce that the valuable information gathered can be utilized for discovery of anticancer, antileishmanial, antioxidant and antidiabetic bioactive lead candidates.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.Institute of Sustainable Halophytes Utilization, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.Institute of Sustainable Halophytes Utilization, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. ihsn99@yahoo.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28870197

Citation

Zahra, Syeda Saniya, et al. "Polarity Based Characterization of Biologically Active Extracts of Ajuga Bracteosa Wall. Ex Benth. and RP-HPLC Analysis." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, 2017, p. 443.
Zahra SS, Ahmed M, Qasim M, et al. Polarity based characterization of biologically active extracts of Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. and RP-HPLC analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):443.
Zahra, S. S., Ahmed, M., Qasim, M., Gul, B., Zia, M., Mirza, B., & Haq, I. U. (2017). Polarity based characterization of biologically active extracts of Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. and RP-HPLC analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17(1), 443. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1951-5
Zahra SS, et al. Polarity Based Characterization of Biologically Active Extracts of Ajuga Bracteosa Wall. Ex Benth. and RP-HPLC Analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Sep 5;17(1):443. PubMed PMID: 28870197.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Polarity based characterization of biologically active extracts of Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. and RP-HPLC analysis. AU - Zahra,Syeda Saniya, AU - Ahmed,Madiha, AU - Qasim,Muhammad, AU - Gul,Bilquees, AU - Zia,Muhammad, AU - Mirza,Bushra, AU - Haq,Ihsan-Ul, Y1 - 2017/09/05/ PY - 2017/03/06/received PY - 2017/08/29/accepted PY - 2017/9/6/entrez PY - 2017/9/6/pubmed PY - 2017/9/9/medline KW - Ajuga Bracteosa KW - Antiproliferative activity KW - Hep G2 hepatoma cell line KW - Leishmania tropica KW - Protein kinase inhibition KW - THP-1 human leukemia cell line SP - 443 EP - 443 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 17 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The concept of botanical therapeutics has revitalized due to wide importance of plant derived pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the ameliorative characteristics of Ajuga bracteosa were studied. METHODS: Total phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity, reducing power and free-radical scavenging activity were determined colorimetrically. Specific polyphenols were quantified by RP-HPLC analysis. Preliminary cytotoxicity was tested using brine shrimp lethality assay while antiproliferative activity against THP-1 and Hep-G2 cell lines was determined by MTT and SRB protocols respectively. Antileishmanial potential was assessed via MTT colorimetric method. To investigate antidiabetic prospect, α-amylase inhibition assay was adopted whereas disc diffusion method was used to detect likely protein kinase inhibitory, antibacterial and antifungal activities. RESULTS: Among fifteen different extracts, maximum total phenolic content (10.75 ± 0.70 μg GAE/mg DW), total reducing power (23.90 ± 0.70 μg AAE/mg DW) and total antioxidant capacity (11.30 ± 0.80 μg AAE/mg DW) were exhibited by methanol extract with superlative percent extract recovery (17.50 ± 0.80% w/w). Chloroform-methanol extract demonstrated maximum flavonoid content (4.10 ± 0.40 μg QE/mg DW) and ethanol extract exhibited greatest radical scavenging activity (IC50 14.40 ± 0.20 μg/ml). RP-HPLC based quantification confirmed polyphenols such as pyrocatechol, gallic acid, resorcinol, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, coumarin, sinapinic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, rutin, quercetin and kaempferol. The brine shrimp lethality assay ranked 78.60% extracts as cytotoxic (LC50 ≤ 250 μg/ml) whereas significant THP-1 inhibition was shown by methanol-acetone extract (IC50 4.70 ± 0.43 μg/ml). The antiproliferative activity against Hep-G2 hepatoma cancer cell line was demonstrated by n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol-distilled water (IC50 8.65-8.95 μg/ml) extracts. Methanol extract displayed prominent protein kinase inhibitory activity (MIC 12.5 μg/disc) while n-hexane extract revealed remarkable antileishmanial activity (IC50 4.69 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The antidiabetic potential was confirmed by n-hexane extract (44.70 ± 0.30% α-amylase inhibition at 200 μg/ml concentration) while a moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities were unveiled. CONCLUSION: The variation in biological spectrum resulted due to use of multiple solvent systems for extraction. We also deduce that the valuable information gathered can be utilized for discovery of anticancer, antileishmanial, antioxidant and antidiabetic bioactive lead candidates. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28870197/Polarity_based_characterization_of_biologically_active_extracts_of_Ajuga_bracteosa_Wall__ex_Benth__and_RP_HPLC_analysis_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-017-1951-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -