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Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response.

METHODS

Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption.

RESULTS

The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes.

CONCLUSIONS

The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: emiliap@aua.gr.

    ,

    Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    ,

    Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    ,

    Laboratory of Food Quality Control and Hygiene, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    ,

    Laboratory of Food Quality Control and Hygiene, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    ,

    Laboratory of Food Quality Control and Hygiene, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    ,

    Medical Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    Laboratory of Food Quality Control and Hygiene, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Blood Glucose
    Cross-Over Studies
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Galactans
    Glycemic Index
    Humans
    Male
    Mannans
    Plant Gums
    Postprandial Period
    Satiation
    Single-Blind Method
    Snacks
    Time

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    28870473

    Citation

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia, et al. "Short-term Effects of a Low Glycemic Index Carob-containing Snack On Energy Intake, Satiety, and Glycemic Response in Normal-weight, Healthy Adults: Results From Two Randomized Trials." Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), vol. 42, 2017, pp. 12-19.
    Papakonstantinou E, Orfanakos N, Farajian P, et al. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials. Nutrition. 2017;42:12-19.
    Papakonstantinou, E., Orfanakos, N., Farajian, P., Kapetanakou, A. E., Makariti, I. P., Grivokostopoulos, N., ... Skandamis, P. N. (2017). Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 42, pp. 12-19. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2017.05.011.
    Papakonstantinou E, et al. Short-term Effects of a Low Glycemic Index Carob-containing Snack On Energy Intake, Satiety, and Glycemic Response in Normal-weight, Healthy Adults: Results From Two Randomized Trials. Nutrition. 2017;42:12-19. PubMed PMID: 28870473.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials. AU - Papakonstantinou,Emilia, AU - Orfanakos,Nickolaos, AU - Farajian,Paul, AU - Kapetanakou,Anastasia E, AU - Makariti,Ifigenia P, AU - Grivokostopoulos,Nikolaos, AU - Ha,Marie-Ann, AU - Skandamis,Panagiotis N, Y1 - 2017/05/31/ PY - 2017/02/28/received PY - 2017/04/19/revised PY - 2017/05/17/accepted PY - 2017/9/6/entrez PY - 2017/9/6/pubmed PY - 2018/3/6/medline KW - Blood glucose KW - Carob KW - Energy intake KW - Preload KW - Satiety KW - Snack SP - 12 EP - 19 JF - Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) JO - Nutrition VL - 42 N2 - OBJECTIVES: The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. METHODS: Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. RESULTS: The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. CONCLUSIONS: The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. SN - 1873-1244 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28870473/Short_term_effects_of_a_low_glycemic_index_carob_containing_snack_on_energy_intake_satiety_and_glycemic_response_in_normal_weight_healthy_adults:_Results_from_two_randomized_trials_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0899-9007(17)30107-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -