Clinical and molecular analysis of 6 Chinese patients with isoleucine metabolism defects: identification of 3 novel mutations in the HSD17B10 and ACAT1 gene.Metab Brain Dis. 2017 Dec; 32(6):2063-2071.MB
Hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase 10 (HSD10) and mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (β-KT) are two adjacent enzymes for the degradation of isoleucine, thus HSD10 and β-KT deficiencies are confusing at an early stage because of nearly the same elevation of typical metabolites in urine, such as 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid (2M3HBA) and tiglylglycine (TG). In order to better understand the differences between these two disorders, we described the clinical and molecular characteristics of two HSD10 deficiency patients and four β-KT deficiency patients. β-KT deficiency patients had a much more favorable outcome than that of HSD10 deficiency patients, indicating that the multifunction of HSD10, especially neurosteroid metabolic activity, other than only enzymatic degradation of isoleucine, is involved in the pathogenesis of HSD10 deficiency. Two different mutations, a novel mutation p.Ile175Met and a reported mutation p.Arg226Gln, were detected in the HSD17B10 gene of HSD10 deficiency patients. Six different mutations, including four known mutations: p.Ala333Pro, p.Thr297Lys, c.83_84delAT, c.1006-1G > C, and two novel mutations: p.Thr277Pro and c.121-3C > G were identified in the ACAT1 gene of β-KT deficiency patients. In general, DNA diagnosis played an important role in distinguishing between these two disorders.