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Evaluating the potential genotoxicity of phthalates esters (PAEs) in perfumes using in vitro assays.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Oct; 24(30):23903-23914.ES

Abstract

We previously reported high levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) added as solvents or fixatives in 47 brands of perfumes. Diethyl phthalate was the most abundant compound (0.232-23,649 ppm), and 83.3% of the perfumes had levels >1 ppm, the threshold limit cited by a Greenpeace investigation. All samples had dimethyl phthalate levels higher than its threshold limit of 0.1 ppm, and 88, 38, and 7% of the perfumes had benzyl butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dibutyl phthalate levels, respectively, above their threshold limits. The role of PAEs as endocrine disruptors has been well documented, but their effect on genotoxic behavior has received little attention. We used in vitro single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) and micronucleus (MN) assays with human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to evaluate the genotoxic potency of 42 of the same perfumes and to determine its association with PAEs. All perfumes induced more DNA damage than a negative control (NEG), ≥ 90% of the samples caused more damage than cells treated with the vehicles possibly used in perfume's preparations such as methanol (ME) and ethanol (ET), and 11.6% of the perfumes caused more DNA damage than a positive control (hydrogen peroxide). Chromosome breakage expressed as MN frequency was higher in cells treated with 71.4, 64.3, 57.1, and 4.8% of the perfumes than in NEG, cells treated with ME or ET, and another positive control (x-rays), respectively. The genotoxic responses in the comet and MN assays were not correlated. The comet assay indicated that the damage in TK6 cells treated with five PAEs at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.2 ppm either individually or as a mixture did not differ significantly from the damage in cells treated with the perfumes. Unlike the comet assay, the sensitivity of the MN assay to PAEs was weak at both low and high concentrations, and MN frequencies were generally low. This study demonstrates for the first time the possible contribution of PAEs in perfumes to DNA damage and suggests that their use as solvents or fixatives should be regulated. Other ingredients with mutagenic/genotoxic properties, however, may also have contributed to the DNA damage. Future studies should focus on applying a series of assays that use different cellular models with various endpoints to identify the spectrum of genotoxic mechanisms involved.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environmental Health Program, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia. iman@kfshrc.edu.sa.Environmental Health Program, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.Environmental Health Program, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.Stem Cell and Tissue Re-Engineering Program, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, PO Box: 3354, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28875446

Citation

Al-Saleh, Iman, et al. "Evaluating the Potential Genotoxicity of Phthalates Esters (PAEs) in Perfumes Using in Vitro Assays." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 24, no. 30, 2017, pp. 23903-23914.
Al-Saleh I, Al-Rajudi T, Al-Qudaihi G, et al. Evaluating the potential genotoxicity of phthalates esters (PAEs) in perfumes using in vitro assays. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(30):23903-23914.
Al-Saleh, I., Al-Rajudi, T., Al-Qudaihi, G., & Manogaran, P. (2017). Evaluating the potential genotoxicity of phthalates esters (PAEs) in perfumes using in vitro assays. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 24(30), 23903-23914. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9978-1
Al-Saleh I, et al. Evaluating the Potential Genotoxicity of Phthalates Esters (PAEs) in Perfumes Using in Vitro Assays. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(30):23903-23914. PubMed PMID: 28875446.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluating the potential genotoxicity of phthalates esters (PAEs) in perfumes using in vitro assays. AU - Al-Saleh,Iman, AU - Al-Rajudi,Tahreer, AU - Al-Qudaihi,Ghofran, AU - Manogaran,Pulicat, Y1 - 2017/09/05/ PY - 2016/11/13/received PY - 2017/08/21/accepted PY - 2017/9/7/pubmed PY - 2018/8/8/medline PY - 2017/9/7/entrez KW - Comet assay KW - Genotoxicity KW - Micronucleus test KW - Perfumes KW - Phthalate esters SP - 23903 EP - 23914 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 24 IS - 30 N2 - We previously reported high levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) added as solvents or fixatives in 47 brands of perfumes. Diethyl phthalate was the most abundant compound (0.232-23,649 ppm), and 83.3% of the perfumes had levels >1 ppm, the threshold limit cited by a Greenpeace investigation. All samples had dimethyl phthalate levels higher than its threshold limit of 0.1 ppm, and 88, 38, and 7% of the perfumes had benzyl butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dibutyl phthalate levels, respectively, above their threshold limits. The role of PAEs as endocrine disruptors has been well documented, but their effect on genotoxic behavior has received little attention. We used in vitro single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) and micronucleus (MN) assays with human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to evaluate the genotoxic potency of 42 of the same perfumes and to determine its association with PAEs. All perfumes induced more DNA damage than a negative control (NEG), ≥ 90% of the samples caused more damage than cells treated with the vehicles possibly used in perfume's preparations such as methanol (ME) and ethanol (ET), and 11.6% of the perfumes caused more DNA damage than a positive control (hydrogen peroxide). Chromosome breakage expressed as MN frequency was higher in cells treated with 71.4, 64.3, 57.1, and 4.8% of the perfumes than in NEG, cells treated with ME or ET, and another positive control (x-rays), respectively. The genotoxic responses in the comet and MN assays were not correlated. The comet assay indicated that the damage in TK6 cells treated with five PAEs at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.2 ppm either individually or as a mixture did not differ significantly from the damage in cells treated with the perfumes. Unlike the comet assay, the sensitivity of the MN assay to PAEs was weak at both low and high concentrations, and MN frequencies were generally low. This study demonstrates for the first time the possible contribution of PAEs in perfumes to DNA damage and suggests that their use as solvents or fixatives should be regulated. Other ingredients with mutagenic/genotoxic properties, however, may also have contributed to the DNA damage. Future studies should focus on applying a series of assays that use different cellular models with various endpoints to identify the spectrum of genotoxic mechanisms involved. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28875446/Evaluating_the_potential_genotoxicity_of_phthalates_esters__PAEs__in_perfumes_using_in_vitro_assays_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9978-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -