Source contributions to total concentrations and carcinogenic potencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air: a case study in Suzhou City, China.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Oct; 24(30):23966-23976.ES
The potential source categories and source contributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air from Suzhou City, China, were performed by principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). The carcinogenic potencies of PCDD/Fs were quantitatively apportioned based on the positive matrix factorization-toxic equivalent concentration (PMF-TEQ) method. The results of the present study were summarized as follows. (1) The total concentrations and toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs (∑PCDD/Fs and TEQ) in ambient air from Suzhou City were 1.34-42.80 pg N m-3 and 0.081-1.22 pg I-TEQ N m-3, respectively. (2) PCA-MLR suggested that industrial combustion (IC), electric arc furnaces (EAFs) and secondary aluminum smelters (ALSs), unleaded gas-fueled vehicle sources (UGFVs), ALSs, and hazardous solid waste incinerators (HSWIs) could be the primary PCDD/F contributors, accounting for 13.2, 16.7, 35.5, 19.4, and 15.2% of ∑PCDD/Fs, respectively. (3) PMF and PMF-TEQ indicated that EAFs (carbon steel), UGFVs, IC, ALSs, municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and hospital waste incinerators (HWIs), and HSWIs contributed 10.9, 10.9, 42.8, 11.3, 10.7, and 13.4% to ∑PCDD/Fs, but contributed 8.3, 12.3, 50.3, 12.7, 6.0, and 10.4% to carcinogenic potencies of PCDD/Fs. This study was the first attempt to quantitatively apportion the source-specific carcinogenic potencies of PCDD/Fs in ambient air.