Vascular density of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma determined by direct observation of resected specimen using narrow band imaging with magnifying endoscopy.Dis Esophagus 2017; 30(11):1-5DE
Observation of the microvasculature using narrow band imaging (NBI) with magnifying endoscopy is useful for diagnosing superficial squamous cell carcinoma. Increased vascular density is indicative of cancer, but not many studies have reported differences between cancerous and noncancerous areas based on an objective comparison. We observed specimens of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using NBI magnification, and determined the vascular density of cancerous and noncancerous areas. A total of 25 lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma that were dissected en bloc by ESD between July 2013 and December 2013 were subjected to NBI magnification. We constructed a device that holds an endoscope and precisely controls the movement along the vertical axis in order to observe submerged specimens by NBI magnification. NBI image files of both cancerous (pathologically determined invasion depth, m1/2) and surrounding noncancerous areas were created and subjected to vascular density assessment by two endoscopists who were blinded to clinical information. The invasion depth was m1/2 in 20, m3/sm1 in four and sm2 in one esophageal cancer lesion. Mean vascular density was significantly increased in cancerous areas (37.6 ± 16.3 vessels/mm2) compared with noncancerous areas (17.6 ± 10.0 vessels/mm2) (P < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between vascular density determined by two endoscopists were 0.86 and 0.81 in cancerous and noncancerous areas, respectively. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) of vascular density was 0.895 (95% CI, 0.804-0.986). For this ROC curve, sensitivity was 78.3% and specificity was 87.0% when the cutoff value of vascular density was 26 vessels/mm2. NBI magnification confirmed significant increases in vascular density in cancerous areas compared with noncancerous areas in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The rates of agreement between vascular density values determined by two independent operators were high.