A multiregional Italian cohort of 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation in renal stone formers.Minerva Urol Nefrol 2018; 70(1):87-94MU
Nephrolithiasis is a common condition with several studies documenting an increased prevalence over the past four decades. EAU and AUA guidelines recommend 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation in high-risk stone formers. Aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the first three years of experience with LithoTest® (Biohealth Italia Srl, Turin, Italy) through the analysis of demographic, clinical and biochemical data collected from a large cohort of patients with kidney stones.
We retrospectively analyzed data from the LithoCenter database, including data from outpatient consultations, between January 2007 and December 2009 from all over Italy. LithoTest® was performed through a 24-hour urine collection and included measurements of urine volume and pH, 24-hour excretion of creatinine as well as main cations and anions, including calcium, magnesium sodium potassium, ammonium, uric acid, oxalate, citrate, phosphate, inorganic sulphate and chloride. Urine state of saturation for calcium oxalate (βCaOx), calcium hydrogen phosphate or brushite (βbsh) and uric acid (βUA) were also calculated by means of the computer program LithoRisk. Brand's test for cystinuria was also carried out. Statistical analysis was performed using the S-PSS software v. 22.0.
The number of patients with data available for analysis was 435, of whom 236 were male (54%) and 199 female (46%). Complete 24-hour urine measurements were available for all 435 patients. Compared to men, women had significantly lower values for creatinine, urate, oxalate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride excretion, whereas 24-hour pH and citrate excretion were higher. No significant differences were found for the other examined variables. βCaOx and βUA were significantly higher in men than women, whereas no significant difference was found for βbsh. There was a direct relationship between calcium and sodium urine excretion. Excessive sodium excretion was recorded in 191 patients (44%) and low urine volumes in 201 (46.2%). Hyperoxaluria was observed in 118 patients (27.3%), hypercalciuria in 115 (26.6%), hyperuricosuria in 153 (35.4%), hypomagnesuria in 96 (22.2%), and hypocitraturia in 134 patients (31%). Hyperexcretion of sodium, hypocitraturia and hyperoxaluria were most frequent in males. βCaOx was significantly higher in the setting of hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria and urine pH below 5.5.
Our findings in a large cohort of high-risk stone-forming patients show significant differences in urinary metabolic profiles between men and women. Carrying on the collection and analysis of data by LithoTest® from 2009 to 2015 and matching urinary and dietary data could eventually improve our understanding on the metabolic profile of stone-formers in Italy.