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Norovirus: new developments and implications for travelers' diarrhea.

Abstract

Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the United States and are responsible for at least 50 % of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring worldwide each year. In addition, noroviruses have caused outbreaks on cruise ships, in nursing homes and hospitals, and in deployed military personnel, but its role in the etiology of travelers' diarrhea is not well defined. The aim of this review is to describe the role of noroviruses in travelers' diarrhea in terms of epidemiology, current diagnostics, treatment and vaccine development efforts. Studies have shown prevalence rates of noroviruses in travelers' diarrhea cases ranging from 10-65 %. It is likely that norovirus prevalence rates are highly underestimated in travelers' diarrhea due to rapid onset, short duration of the illness, limited availability of laboratory facilities, and the fact that most clinical laboratories lack the diagnostic capability to detect noroviruses in stool. Further, additional studies are needed to accurately determine the true prevalence rates of norovirus as an etiologic agent of diarrhea among travelers to different regions around the world. With the rapid progress in the development of a norovirus vaccine, travelers could serve as an ideal population for future norovirus clinical trials.

Authors+Show Affiliations

U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No.6 (NAMRU-6), Venezuela Ave, Block 36, Callao 2, Lima, Peru.Naval Medical Research Center - Asia (NMRC-A), PSA Sembawang Deptford Rd, Building 7-4, Singapore, 759657 Singapore.U.S. Army Medical Research Unit - Kenya, Kericho Field Station, PO Box 1357 Hospital Road, Kericho, 20220 Kenya.U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 (NAMRU-2), Phnom Penh, Blvd Kim Il Sung, Khan Toul Kork Phnom Penh, Cambodia.Department of Enteric Diseases, U.S. Army Medical Directorate - Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences AFRIMS), 315/6 Rajvithi Rd, Bangkok, 10400 Thailand.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28883945

Citation

Simons, Mark P., et al. "Norovirus: New Developments and Implications for Travelers' Diarrhea." Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines, vol. 2, 2016, p. 1.
Simons MP, Pike BL, Hulseberg CE, et al. Norovirus: new developments and implications for travelers' diarrhea. Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines. 2016;2:1.
Simons, M. P., Pike, B. L., Hulseberg, C. E., Prouty, M. G., & Swierczewski, B. E. (2016). Norovirus: new developments and implications for travelers' diarrhea. Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines, 2, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40794-016-0017-x
Simons MP, et al. Norovirus: New Developments and Implications for Travelers' Diarrhea. Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines. 2016;2:1. PubMed PMID: 28883945.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Norovirus: new developments and implications for travelers' diarrhea. AU - Simons,Mark P, AU - Pike,Brian L, AU - Hulseberg,Christine E, AU - Prouty,Michael G, AU - Swierczewski,Brett E, Y1 - 2016/01/12/ PY - 2015/06/12/received PY - 2016/01/05/accepted PY - 2017/9/9/entrez PY - 2016/1/12/pubmed PY - 2016/1/12/medline KW - Acute gastroenteritis KW - Norovirus KW - Travelers’ Diarrhea SP - 1 EP - 1 JF - Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines VL - 2 N2 - Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the United States and are responsible for at least 50 % of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring worldwide each year. In addition, noroviruses have caused outbreaks on cruise ships, in nursing homes and hospitals, and in deployed military personnel, but its role in the etiology of travelers' diarrhea is not well defined. The aim of this review is to describe the role of noroviruses in travelers' diarrhea in terms of epidemiology, current diagnostics, treatment and vaccine development efforts. Studies have shown prevalence rates of noroviruses in travelers' diarrhea cases ranging from 10-65 %. It is likely that norovirus prevalence rates are highly underestimated in travelers' diarrhea due to rapid onset, short duration of the illness, limited availability of laboratory facilities, and the fact that most clinical laboratories lack the diagnostic capability to detect noroviruses in stool. Further, additional studies are needed to accurately determine the true prevalence rates of norovirus as an etiologic agent of diarrhea among travelers to different regions around the world. With the rapid progress in the development of a norovirus vaccine, travelers could serve as an ideal population for future norovirus clinical trials. SN - 2055-0936 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28883945/full_citation L2 - https://tdtmvjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40794-016-0017-x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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