Impact of boiling on free and bound phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of commercial gluten-free pasta.Food Res Int. 2017 10; 100(Pt 2):69-77.FR
Cooking by boiling dry pasta could have varying degrees of influence on nutritional and functional components. In the present study, its effect on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, as well as on the comprehensive profile of free and bound phenolics, was investigated in six commercial gluten-free (GF) pasta products. Overall, the heat treatment caused a significant reduction (P<0.01) of the total phenolic content as well as FRAP reducing power and ORAC radical scavenging, with significant differences among the pasta samples considered. The highest values were recorded in free phenolic fraction remaining in black rice (41mggallic acid equivalents100g-1 and 25mmolTrolox Equivalents100g-1) and quinoa (24mggallic acid equivalents100g-1 and 14mmolTrolox Equivalents100g-1) cooked GF pasta. Significant correlations (P<0.01) could be found between total phenolics and both the antioxidant capacity assays performed. UHPLC-ESI/QTOF-MS mass profiling allowed confirming the spectrophotometric results, while identifying the amount of free and bound fractions. Among phenolic classes, lignans exhibited the highest decrease during the cooking process, followed by stilbenes and flavonoids. However, phenolic acids and other phenolics showed the highest stability. Furthermore, cooking by boiling strongly lowered the bound-to-free ratio of phenolic compounds, by an averaged factor ranging from 14-folds for flavonoids to 5-folds for other classes of phenolics.