Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale: Does It Predict Adverse Outcomes among Geriatric Trauma Patients?J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Nov; 225(5):658-665.e3.JA
The Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and the laboratory Frailty Index (FI-lab) are validated tools based on clinical and laboratory data, respectively. Their utility as predictors of geriatric trauma outcomes is unknown. Our primary objective was to determine whether pre-admission CFS is associated with adverse discharge destination. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the relationships between CFS and in-hospital complications and between admission FI-lab and discharge destination.
We performed a 4-year (2011 to 2014) retrospective cohort study with patients 65 years and older admitted to a level I trauma center. Admission FI-lab was calculated using 23 variables collected within 48 hours of presentation. The primary outcome was discharge destination, either adverse (death or discharge to a long-term, chronic, or acute care facility) or favorable (home or rehabilitation). The secondary outcome was in-hospital complications. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between CFS or FI-lab and outcomes.
There were 266 patients included. Mean age was 76.5 ± 7.8 years and median Injury Severity Score was 17 (interquartile range 13 to 24). There were 260 patients and 221 patients who had sufficient data to determine CFS and FI-lab scores, respectively. Pre-admission frailty as per the CFS (CFS 6 or 7) was independently associated with adverse discharge destination (odds ratio 5.1; 95% CI 2.0 to 13.2; p < 0.001). Severe frailty on admission, as determined by the FI-lab (FI-lab > 0.4), was not associated with adverse outcomes.
Pre-admission clinical frailty independently predicts adverse discharge destination in geriatric trauma patients. The CFS may be used to triage resources to mitigate adverse outcomes in this population. The FI-lab determined on admission for trauma may not be useful.