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Blood Lead Levels in Asymptomatic Opium Addict Patients; a Case Control Study.
Emerg (Tehran) 2017; 5(1):e69E

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

One of the newest non-occupational sources of lead contamination is drug addiction, which has recently been addressed as a major source of lead poisoning in some countries. The present study aimed to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) of asymptomatic opium addicts.

METHODS

This case-control study was conducted during a one-year period to compare BLL of three groups consisting of opium addicts, patients under methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), and healthy individuals.

RESULTS

99 participants with the mean age of 55.43±12.83 years were studied in three groups of 33 cases (53.5% male). The mean lead level in opium addicts, MMT and control groups were 80.30 ± 6.03 μg/L, 67.94 ± 4.42 μg/L, and 57.30±4.77 μg/L, respectively (p=0.008). There was no significant difference in BLL between MMT and healthy individuals (p=0.433) and also between opium addicts and MMT individuals (p=0.271).Oral opium abusers had significantly higher lead levels (p = 0.036). There was a significant correlation between BLL and duration of drug abuse in opium addict cases (r=0.398, p=0.022). The odds ratio of having BLL ≥ 100 in oral opium users was 2.1 (95% CI: 0.92 - 4.61; p = 0.43).

CONCLUSION

Based on the result of present study, when compared to healthy individuals, opium addicts, especially those who took substance orally had significantly higher levels of blood lead, and their odds of having BLL ≥ 100 was two times. Therefore, screening for BLL in opium addicts, particularly those with non-specific complaints, could be useful.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran. Department of Neurosurgery, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.Department of Internal Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.Toxicology and Diseases Group, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28894784

Citation

Ghaemi, Kazem, et al. "Blood Lead Levels in Asymptomatic Opium Addict Patients; a Case Control Study." Emergency (Tehran, Iran), vol. 5, no. 1, 2017, pp. e69.
Ghaemi K, Ghoreishi A, Rabiee N, et al. Blood Lead Levels in Asymptomatic Opium Addict Patients; a Case Control Study. Emerg (Tehran). 2017;5(1):e69.
Ghaemi, K., Ghoreishi, A., Rabiee, N., Alinejad, S., Farzaneh, E., Amirabadi Zadeh, A., ... Mehrpour, O. (2017). Blood Lead Levels in Asymptomatic Opium Addict Patients; a Case Control Study. Emergency (Tehran, Iran), 5(1), pp. e69.
Ghaemi K, et al. Blood Lead Levels in Asymptomatic Opium Addict Patients; a Case Control Study. Emerg (Tehran). 2017;5(1):e69. PubMed PMID: 28894784.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Blood Lead Levels in Asymptomatic Opium Addict Patients; a Case Control Study. AU - Ghaemi,Kazem, AU - Ghoreishi,Atefeh, AU - Rabiee,Navid, AU - Alinejad,Samira, AU - Farzaneh,Esmaeil, AU - Amirabadi Zadeh,Alireza, AU - Abdollahi,Mohammad, AU - Mehrpour,Omid, Y1 - 2017/06/15/ PY - 2017/9/13/entrez PY - 2017/9/13/pubmed PY - 2017/9/13/medline KW - Lead KW - case-control studies KW - heroin KW - methadone KW - opium KW - substance abuse treatment centers SP - e69 EP - e69 JF - Emergency (Tehran, Iran) JO - Emerg (Tehran) VL - 5 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION: One of the newest non-occupational sources of lead contamination is drug addiction, which has recently been addressed as a major source of lead poisoning in some countries. The present study aimed to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) of asymptomatic opium addicts. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted during a one-year period to compare BLL of three groups consisting of opium addicts, patients under methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), and healthy individuals. RESULTS: 99 participants with the mean age of 55.43±12.83 years were studied in three groups of 33 cases (53.5% male). The mean lead level in opium addicts, MMT and control groups were 80.30 ± 6.03 μg/L, 67.94 ± 4.42 μg/L, and 57.30±4.77 μg/L, respectively (p=0.008). There was no significant difference in BLL between MMT and healthy individuals (p=0.433) and also between opium addicts and MMT individuals (p=0.271).Oral opium abusers had significantly higher lead levels (p = 0.036). There was a significant correlation between BLL and duration of drug abuse in opium addict cases (r=0.398, p=0.022). The odds ratio of having BLL ≥ 100 in oral opium users was 2.1 (95% CI: 0.92 - 4.61; p = 0.43). CONCLUSION: Based on the result of present study, when compared to healthy individuals, opium addicts, especially those who took substance orally had significantly higher levels of blood lead, and their odds of having BLL ≥ 100 was two times. Therefore, screening for BLL in opium addicts, particularly those with non-specific complaints, could be useful. SN - 2345-4563 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28894784/Blood_Lead_Levels_in_Asymptomatic_Opium_Addict_Patients L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/28894784/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -