Watery Saliva Secreted by the Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae Stimulates Aphid Resistance in Wheat.J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Oct 11; 65(40):8798-8805.JA
Infestation with Sitobion avenae induces localized defense responses in wheat; in this study, the role of S. avenae watery saliva in resistance induction was examined by infiltrating aphid saliva into wheat leaves. After feeding S. avenae on an artificial diet for 48 h, we first collected watery saliva from them and then separated the salivary proteins using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Gene expression studies showed that infiltration of S. avenae watery saliva in wheat leaves induced a strong salicylic acid-responsive defense but moderate jasmonic acid-dependent defense. Feeding on wheat leaves infiltrated with aphid saliva, compared with untreated leaves, significantly decreased the number of nymphs produced per day and the intrinsic rate of increase of the population of S. avenae. In a choice test against untreated wheat, saliva-infiltrated wheat had repellent effects on aphids. Additionally, electrical penetration graph results showed that the feeding behavior of S. avenae on saliva-treated wheat was negatively affected compared with that on untreated wheat. These findings provided direct evidence that salivary components of S. avenae are involved in the induction of wheat resistance against aphids and further demonstrated the important roles of watery saliva in aphid-plant interactions.