DISSEMINATED TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A CAPTIVE ADULT DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS).J Zoo Wildl Med. 2017 09; 48(3):937-940.JZ
An 11-yr-old dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) at a zoo in south Florida presented with diarrhea while being treated with enrofloxacin and dexamethasone for a chronic skin condition. Three weeks after initiation of therapy with dexamethasone, the camel developed diarrhea, which worsened despite treatment with antibiotics. The animal became increasingly debilitated, developed hemorrhagic diarrhea, declined rapidly over the next 3 days, and died despite aggressive fluid therapy and supportive care. Histologic examination revealed intralesional protozoal tissue cysts consistent with Toxoplasma gondii in the intestines, lungs, and liver, as well as lymphoid depletion of the spleen suggesting immunosuppression. To the author's knowledge this is the first reported case of disseminated toxoplasmosis that clinically manifested as hemorrhagic enterocolitis in a camel.