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Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management.
Am Fam Physician. 2017 Sep 15; 96(6):384-389.AF

Abstract

Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other clinical manifestations. Screening average-risk adults for vitamin B12 deficiency is not recommended. Screening may be warranted in patients with one or more risk factors, such as gastric or small intestine resections, inflammatory bowel disease, use of metformin for more than four months, use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 blockers for more than 12 months, vegans or strict vegetarians, and adults older than 75 years. Initial laboratory assessment should include a complete blood count and serum vitamin B12 level. Measurement of serum methylmalonic acid should be used to confirm deficiency in asymptomatic high-risk patients with low-normal levels of vitamin B12. Oral administration of high-dose vitamin B12 (1 to 2 mg daily) is as effective as intramuscular administration for correcting anemia and neurologic symptoms. Intramuscular therapy leads to more rapid improvement and should be considered in patients with severe deficiency or severe neurologic symptoms. Absorption rates improve with supplementation; therefore, patients older than 50 years and vegans or strict vegetarians should consume foods fortified with vitamin B12 or take vitamin B12 supplements. Patients who have had bariatric surgery should receive 1 mg of oral vitamin B12 per day indefinitely. Use of vitamin B12 in patients with elevated serum homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease does not reduce the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke, or alter cognitive decline.

Authors+Show Affiliations

St. Luke's Family Medicine Residency Program, Bethlehem, PA, USA.St. Luke's Family Medicine Residency Program, Bethlehem, PA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28925645

Citation

Langan, Robert C., and Andrew J. Goodbred. "Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management." American Family Physician, vol. 96, no. 6, 2017, pp. 384-389.
Langan RC, Goodbred AJ. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2017;96(6):384-389.
Langan, R. C., & Goodbred, A. J. (2017). Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management. American Family Physician, 96(6), 384-389.
Langan RC, Goodbred AJ. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Sep 15;96(6):384-389. PubMed PMID: 28925645.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management. AU - Langan,Robert C, AU - Goodbred,Andrew J, PY - 2017/9/20/entrez PY - 2017/9/20/pubmed PY - 2017/9/26/medline SP - 384 EP - 389 JF - American family physician JO - Am Fam Physician VL - 96 IS - 6 N2 - Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other clinical manifestations. Screening average-risk adults for vitamin B12 deficiency is not recommended. Screening may be warranted in patients with one or more risk factors, such as gastric or small intestine resections, inflammatory bowel disease, use of metformin for more than four months, use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 blockers for more than 12 months, vegans or strict vegetarians, and adults older than 75 years. Initial laboratory assessment should include a complete blood count and serum vitamin B12 level. Measurement of serum methylmalonic acid should be used to confirm deficiency in asymptomatic high-risk patients with low-normal levels of vitamin B12. Oral administration of high-dose vitamin B12 (1 to 2 mg daily) is as effective as intramuscular administration for correcting anemia and neurologic symptoms. Intramuscular therapy leads to more rapid improvement and should be considered in patients with severe deficiency or severe neurologic symptoms. Absorption rates improve with supplementation; therefore, patients older than 50 years and vegans or strict vegetarians should consume foods fortified with vitamin B12 or take vitamin B12 supplements. Patients who have had bariatric surgery should receive 1 mg of oral vitamin B12 per day indefinitely. Use of vitamin B12 in patients with elevated serum homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease does not reduce the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke, or alter cognitive decline. SN - 1532-0650 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28925645/Vitamin_B12_Deficiency:_Recognition_and_Management_ L2 - https://www.aafp.org/link_out?pmid=28925645 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -