Oxidative stress in inflammatory cells of patient with rheumatoid arthritis: clinical efficacy of dietary antioxidants.Inflammopharmacology. 2017 Dec; 25(6):595-607.I
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease responsible for significant human morbidity in modern life. However, oxidative stress is one of the key markers for determining pathophysiology of patients with RA. The interaction between cellular immune system and body's endogenous and/or exogenous antigens produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in autoimmune disease like RA. ROS and RNS include highly toxic superoxide (O2-) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) radicals, which activate the signaling cascades of inflammatory cells to synthesize pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Previous studies reported that Th1 cytokines could promote the development of autoimmune disorders like RA, whereas the Th2 cytokines may attenuate the same diseases. An increased awareness of the relationship between food and health led to a tremendous increase of antioxidant research in the last decade. Evaluation of the efficacy of dietary antioxidants is also becoming highly acceptable in RA research. A number of dietary phytomolecules are already established as having antioxidant activity in isolated synovial cellular infiltrate or peripheral blood neutrophils and lymphocytes. This review aims to highlight the oxidative stress in inflammatory cells of patients with RA and to summarize the clinical relevance of dietary antioxidants as a first step in assessing beneficial effect, safety and dose safety ratio in patients with RA.