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Emerging arboviruses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Chikungunya and Zika outbreaks, 2014-2016.
Rev Med Virol. 2017 11; 27(6)RM

Abstract

QUESTIONS INVESTIGATED

The recent emergence of arboviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has posed a threat to human health and to the country's economy. Outbreaks occur mainly in tropical areas; however, increasing number of cases have been observed in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Southernmost state; therefore, surveillance of these arboviruses is essential for public health measures.

DESIGN

In this study, we analyzed 1276 samples from patients with clinically suspected arboviral diseases between 2014 and 2016. Demographic and clinical data were collected and described; cases of microcephaly associated with congenital infection were analyzed.

ESSENTIAL FINDINGS

Results show that CHIKV and ZIKV entered RS in 2014 and 2015, respectively, with imported cases confirmed. Autochthonous infections occurred in 2016 for both viruses, with a total of 5 autochthonous cases for CHIKV and 44 for ZIKV. Most patients were older than 21 years; the main symptoms were fever, arthralgia, myalgia, and headache; rash, conjunctivitis, and pruritus were also reported in ZIKV cases. Three cases of congenital Zika syndrome were confirmed in our study, while another 20 cases of microcephaly associated with congenital infection were confirmed (10 positive for syphilis, 6 for toxoplasmosis and 4 for cytomegalovirus).

MAIN CONCLUSIONS

Considering co-circulation of different arbovirus in RS, including Dengue virus, CHIKV, and ZIKV, and the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the area, surveillance of patients infected by these viruses contributes to the control and prevention of such diseases. Practical difficulties in diagnosing these infections are discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, IPB-LACEN/RS, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - SES/RS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.Centro Estadual de Vigilância em Saúde - CEVS, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - SES/RS, Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.Centro Estadual de Vigilância em Saúde - CEVS, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - SES/RS, Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, IPB-LACEN/RS, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - SES/RS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, IPB-LACEN/RS, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - SES/RS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, IPB-LACEN/RS, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - SES/RS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, IPB-LACEN/RS, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - SES/RS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - UFCSPA, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28929534

Citation

Gregianini, Tatiana Schäffer, et al. "Emerging Arboviruses in Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil: Chikungunya and Zika Outbreaks, 2014-2016." Reviews in Medical Virology, vol. 27, no. 6, 2017.
Gregianini TS, Ranieri T, Favreto C, et al. Emerging arboviruses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Chikungunya and Zika outbreaks, 2014-2016. Rev Med Virol. 2017;27(6).
Gregianini, T. S., Ranieri, T., Favreto, C., Nunes, Z. M. A., Tumioto Giannini, G. L., Sanberg, N. D., da Rosa, M. T. M., & da Veiga, A. B. G. (2017). Emerging arboviruses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Chikungunya and Zika outbreaks, 2014-2016. Reviews in Medical Virology, 27(6). https://doi.org/10.1002/rmv.1943
Gregianini TS, et al. Emerging Arboviruses in Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil: Chikungunya and Zika Outbreaks, 2014-2016. Rev Med Virol. 2017;27(6) PubMed PMID: 28929534.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Emerging arboviruses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Chikungunya and Zika outbreaks, 2014-2016. AU - Gregianini,Tatiana Schäffer, AU - Ranieri,Tani, AU - Favreto,Cátia, AU - Nunes,Zenaida Marion Alves, AU - Tumioto Giannini,Gabriela Luchiari, AU - Sanberg,Nara Druck, AU - da Rosa,Marilda Tereza Mar, AU - da Veiga,Ana Beatriz Gorini, Y1 - 2017/09/20/ PY - 2017/07/03/received PY - 2017/08/11/revised PY - 2017/08/15/accepted PY - 2017/9/21/pubmed PY - 2018/7/4/medline PY - 2017/9/21/entrez KW - Chikungunya virus-CHIKV KW - Zika virus-ZIKV KW - arboviral diseases KW - congenital Zika syndrome KW - microcephaly JF - Reviews in medical virology JO - Rev Med Virol VL - 27 IS - 6 N2 - QUESTIONS INVESTIGATED: The recent emergence of arboviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has posed a threat to human health and to the country's economy. Outbreaks occur mainly in tropical areas; however, increasing number of cases have been observed in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Southernmost state; therefore, surveillance of these arboviruses is essential for public health measures. DESIGN: In this study, we analyzed 1276 samples from patients with clinically suspected arboviral diseases between 2014 and 2016. Demographic and clinical data were collected and described; cases of microcephaly associated with congenital infection were analyzed. ESSENTIAL FINDINGS: Results show that CHIKV and ZIKV entered RS in 2014 and 2015, respectively, with imported cases confirmed. Autochthonous infections occurred in 2016 for both viruses, with a total of 5 autochthonous cases for CHIKV and 44 for ZIKV. Most patients were older than 21 years; the main symptoms were fever, arthralgia, myalgia, and headache; rash, conjunctivitis, and pruritus were also reported in ZIKV cases. Three cases of congenital Zika syndrome were confirmed in our study, while another 20 cases of microcephaly associated with congenital infection were confirmed (10 positive for syphilis, 6 for toxoplasmosis and 4 for cytomegalovirus). MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Considering co-circulation of different arbovirus in RS, including Dengue virus, CHIKV, and ZIKV, and the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the area, surveillance of patients infected by these viruses contributes to the control and prevention of such diseases. Practical difficulties in diagnosing these infections are discussed. SN - 1099-1654 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28929534/Emerging_arboviruses_in_Rio_Grande_do_Sul_Brazil:_Chikungunya_and_Zika_outbreaks_2014_2016_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/rmv.1943 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -