The Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Puerto Rico: Distribution, Infestation, and Population per Fruit.J Insect Sci. 2017 Jan 01; 17(2)JI
The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei: Ferrar) was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2007. Its distribution since then has been extensive, but not extensively documented. An island-wide survey was carried out from August to November 2014 (the coffee production season) to assess CBB distribution, infestation, and population per fruit. The CBB was well-established throughout the coffee-growing area of Puerto Rico, but was not evenly distributed. Infestation (or percentages of fruits perforated) in sites sampled ranged from 0 to 95%, and CBB number per infested fruit varied from 1 to 34 individuals. CBB infestation and total population per fruit were positively correlated with altitude. Highest infestation and total population were observed in sites located >400 masl; most of the coffee-producing area in Puerto Rico is above this altitude. Coffea arabica (L.) had higher CBB infestation and population per fruit than Coffea canephora (Pierre ex A. Froehner) (robusta coffee). Based on these results, management tools should be implemented to mitigate the severe damage that CBB is causing in Puerto Rico. These management tools should include the removal of all fruits that remain on the plants after harvest and the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balls.) Vuill. for biocontrol, especially on coffee farms at higher elevations.