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Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Nutr Rev 2017; 75(9):683-698NR

Abstract

Context

Although a recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that adoption of a vegetarian diet reduces plasma lipids, the association between vegetarian diets and long-term effects on plasma lipids has not been subjected to meta-analysis.

Objective

The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and clinical trials that have examined associations between plant-based diets and plasma lipids.

Data Sources

MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in English until June 2015.

Study Selection

The literature was searched for controlled trials and observational studies that investigated the effects of at least 4 weeks of a vegetarian diet on plasma lipids.

Data Extraction

Two reviewers independently extracted the study methodology and sample size, the baseline characteristics of the study population, and the concentrations and variance measures of plasma lipids. Mean differences in concentrations of plasma lipids between vegetarian and comparison diet groups were calculated. Data were pooled using a random-effects model.

Results

Of the 8385 studies identified, 30 observational studies and 19 clinical trials met the inclusion criteria (N = 1484; mean age, 48.6 years). Consumption of vegetarian diets was associated with lower mean concentrations of total cholesterol (-29.2 and -12.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-22.9 and -12.2 mg/dL, P < 0.001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-3.6 and -3.4 mg/dL, P < 0.001), compared with consumption of omnivorous diets in observational studies and clinical trials, respectively. Triglyceride differences were -6.5 (P = 0.092) in observational studies and 5.8 mg/dL (P = 0.090) in intervention trials.

Conclusions

Plant-based diets are associated with decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with decreased triglycerides.

Systematic Review Registration

PROSPERO number CRD42015023783. Available at: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015023783.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan.Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC, USA. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28938794

Citation

Yokoyama, Yoko, et al. "Association Between Plant-based Diets and Plasma Lipids: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis." Nutrition Reviews, vol. 75, no. 9, 2017, pp. 683-698.
Yokoyama Y, Levin SM, Barnard ND. Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2017;75(9):683-698.
Yokoyama, Y., Levin, S. M., & Barnard, N. D. (2017). Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition Reviews, 75(9), pp. 683-698. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nux030.
Yokoyama Y, Levin SM, Barnard ND. Association Between Plant-based Diets and Plasma Lipids: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2017 Sep 1;75(9):683-698. PubMed PMID: 28938794.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Yokoyama,Yoko, AU - Levin,Susan M, AU - Barnard,Neal D, PY - 2017/9/24/entrez PY - 2017/9/25/pubmed PY - 2018/3/2/medline KW - high-density lipoprotein cholesterol KW - low-density lipoprotein cholesterol KW - meta-analysis KW - plant-based diets KW - plasma lipids KW - systematic review KW - total cholesterol SP - 683 EP - 698 JF - Nutrition reviews JO - Nutr. Rev. VL - 75 IS - 9 N2 - Context: Although a recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that adoption of a vegetarian diet reduces plasma lipids, the association between vegetarian diets and long-term effects on plasma lipids has not been subjected to meta-analysis. Objective: The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and clinical trials that have examined associations between plant-based diets and plasma lipids. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in English until June 2015. Study Selection: The literature was searched for controlled trials and observational studies that investigated the effects of at least 4 weeks of a vegetarian diet on plasma lipids. Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently extracted the study methodology and sample size, the baseline characteristics of the study population, and the concentrations and variance measures of plasma lipids. Mean differences in concentrations of plasma lipids between vegetarian and comparison diet groups were calculated. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Results: Of the 8385 studies identified, 30 observational studies and 19 clinical trials met the inclusion criteria (N = 1484; mean age, 48.6 years). Consumption of vegetarian diets was associated with lower mean concentrations of total cholesterol (-29.2 and -12.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-22.9 and -12.2 mg/dL, P < 0.001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-3.6 and -3.4 mg/dL, P < 0.001), compared with consumption of omnivorous diets in observational studies and clinical trials, respectively. Triglyceride differences were -6.5 (P = 0.092) in observational studies and 5.8 mg/dL (P = 0.090) in intervention trials. Conclusions: Plant-based diets are associated with decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with decreased triglycerides. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO number CRD42015023783. Available at: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015023783. SN - 1753-4887 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28938794/Association_between_plant_based_diets_and_plasma_lipids:_a_systematic_review_and_meta_analysis_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/nutrit/nux030 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -