Insights Into the Ecology of Grapevine red blotch virus in a Diseased Vineyard.Phytopathology. 2018 Jan; 108(1):94-102.P
Limited information is available on the spread of Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV, genus Grablovirus, family Geminiviridae) in vineyards. To investigate ecological aspects of red blotch disease spread, sticky cards to catch flying insects were placed in 2015 (April to November) and 2016 (March to November) in a vineyard study site in California where disease incidence increased by nearly 20% between 2014 and 2016. Subsets of insect species or taxa were removed from sticky card traps and individual specimens were tested for the presence of GRBV by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. GRBV was consistently detected in Spissistilus festinus (Membracidae), Colladonus reductus (Cicadellidae), Osbornellus borealis (Cicadellidae), and a Melanoliarus sp. (Cixiidae). Populations of these four candidate vectors peaked from June to September, with viruliferous S. festinus peaking from late June to early July in both years. An assessment of co-occurrence and covariation between the spatial distribution of GRBV-infected vines and viruliferous insects identified a significant association only with viruliferous S. festinus. These findings revealed the epidemiological relevance of S. festinus as a vector of GRBV in a vineyard ecosystem. Sequencing coat protein and replicase-associated protein gene fragments of GRBV isolates from newly infected vines and viruliferous vector candidates further suggested secondary spread primarily from local sources and occasionally from background sources.