Ecotoxicological evaluation of the risk posed by bisphenol A, triclosan, and 4-nonylphenol in coastal waters using early life stages of marine organisms (Isochrysis galbana, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Paracentrotus lividus, and Acartia clausi).Environ Pollut. 2018 Jan; 232:173-182.EP
This study assessed the environmental risk on coastal ecosystems posed by three phenolic compounds of special environmental and human health concern used in plastics and household products: bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). These three chemicals are among the organic contaminants most frequently detected in wastewater. The most toxic compound tested was 4-NP, with 10% effective concentration at 11.1 μg L-1 for Isochrysis galbana, 110.5 μg L-1 for Mytilus galloprovincialis, 53.8 μg L-1 for Paracentrotus lividus, and 29.0 μg L-1 for Acartia clausi, followed by TCS (14.6 μg L-1 for I. galbana, 149.8 μg L-1 for M. galloprovincialis, 129.9 μg L-1 for P. lividus, and 64.8 μg L-1 for A. clausi). For all species tested, BPA was the less toxic chemical, with toxicity thresholds ranging between 400 and 1200 μg L-1 except for A. clausi nauplii (186 μg L-1). The relatively narrow range of variation in toxicity considering the broad physiological differences among the biological models used point at non-selective mechanisms of toxicity for these aromatic organics. Microalgae, the main primary producers in pelagic ecosystems, showed particularly high susceptibility to the chemicals tested. When the toxicity thresholds experimentally obtained were compared to the maximum environmental concentrations reported in coastal waters, the risk quotients obtained correspond to very low or low risk for BPA and TCS, and from low to high for 4-NP.