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Total Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Food Sources in the United States Compared to Recommended Intakes: NHANES 2003-2008.
Lipids. 2017 11; 52(11):917-927.L

Abstract

The American Heart Association recommends consuming fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week, which would provide ≈ 0.5 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Previous analyses indicate that this recommendation is not being met; however, few studies have assessed different ethnicities, subpopulations requiring additional n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., children and pregnant and/or lactating women), or deciles of intake. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 was used to assess n-3 fatty acid intake from foods and supplements in the US population, according to age, sex, and ethnicity. A unique "EPA equivalents" factor, which accounts for potential conversion of shorter-chain n-3 fatty acids, was used to calculate total long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake. Data are reported for 24,621 individuals. More than 90% consumed less than the recommended 0.5 g/day from food sources (median = 0.11 g/day; mean = 0.17 g/day). Among the top 15% of n-3 fatty acid consumers, fish was the largest dietary contributor (71.2%). Intake was highest in men aged 20 years or more, and lowest in children and women who are or may become pregnant and/or are lactating. Among ethnicities, intake was lowest in Mexican-Americans. Only 6.2% of the total population reported n-3 fatty acid supplement use, and this did not alter median daily intake. Additional strategies are needed to increase awareness of health benefits (particularly among Mexican-Americans and women of childbearing age) and promote consumption of oily fish or alternative dietary sources to meet current recommendations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1177 E. 4th St., 309 Shantz Bldg, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA. richterck@email.arizona.edu.Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1177 E. 4th St., 309 Shantz Bldg, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA. Arizona Center on Aging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28956299

Citation

Richter, Chesney K., et al. "Total Long-Chain N-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Food Sources in the United States Compared to Recommended Intakes: NHANES 2003-2008." Lipids, vol. 52, no. 11, 2017, pp. 917-927.
Richter CK, Bowen KJ, Mozaffarian D, et al. Total Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Food Sources in the United States Compared to Recommended Intakes: NHANES 2003-2008. Lipids. 2017;52(11):917-927.
Richter, C. K., Bowen, K. J., Mozaffarian, D., Kris-Etherton, P. M., & Skulas-Ray, A. C. (2017). Total Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Food Sources in the United States Compared to Recommended Intakes: NHANES 2003-2008. Lipids, 52(11), 917-927. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-017-4297-3
Richter CK, et al. Total Long-Chain N-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Food Sources in the United States Compared to Recommended Intakes: NHANES 2003-2008. Lipids. 2017;52(11):917-927. PubMed PMID: 28956299.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Total Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Food Sources in the United States Compared to Recommended Intakes: NHANES 2003-2008. AU - Richter,Chesney K, AU - Bowen,Kate J, AU - Mozaffarian,Dariush, AU - Kris-Etherton,Penny M, AU - Skulas-Ray,Ann C, Y1 - 2017/09/27/ PY - 2017/06/04/received PY - 2017/09/13/accepted PY - 2017/9/29/pubmed PY - 2018/6/26/medline PY - 2017/9/29/entrez KW - Docosahexaenoic acid KW - Eicosapentaenoic acid KW - Oily fish KW - n-3 fatty acid supplements SP - 917 EP - 927 JF - Lipids JO - Lipids VL - 52 IS - 11 N2 - The American Heart Association recommends consuming fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week, which would provide ≈ 0.5 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Previous analyses indicate that this recommendation is not being met; however, few studies have assessed different ethnicities, subpopulations requiring additional n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., children and pregnant and/or lactating women), or deciles of intake. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 was used to assess n-3 fatty acid intake from foods and supplements in the US population, according to age, sex, and ethnicity. A unique "EPA equivalents" factor, which accounts for potential conversion of shorter-chain n-3 fatty acids, was used to calculate total long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake. Data are reported for 24,621 individuals. More than 90% consumed less than the recommended 0.5 g/day from food sources (median = 0.11 g/day; mean = 0.17 g/day). Among the top 15% of n-3 fatty acid consumers, fish was the largest dietary contributor (71.2%). Intake was highest in men aged 20 years or more, and lowest in children and women who are or may become pregnant and/or are lactating. Among ethnicities, intake was lowest in Mexican-Americans. Only 6.2% of the total population reported n-3 fatty acid supplement use, and this did not alter median daily intake. Additional strategies are needed to increase awareness of health benefits (particularly among Mexican-Americans and women of childbearing age) and promote consumption of oily fish or alternative dietary sources to meet current recommendations. SN - 1558-9307 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28956299/Total_Long_Chain_n_3_Fatty_Acid_Intake_and_Food_Sources_in_the_United_States_Compared_to_Recommended_Intakes:_NHANES_2003_2008_ L2 - https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11745-017-4297-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -