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Special diets in modern America: Analysis of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey data.
Nutr Health. 2018 Mar; 24(1):11-18.NH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Special diets are frequently used by the public but reasons for use and characteristics of users remain unclear.

AIM

To determine prevalence of the use of special diets, the individual characteristics associated with their use and reasons for use.

METHODS

The secondary analysis used data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional household interview survey of a nationally representative sample of non-hospitalized US adult populations (n = 34,525). The dependent variables in this secondary analysis were the use of a special diet (vegetarian, macrobiotic, Atkins, Pritikin, and Ornish) ever and during the past 12 months. Independent variables included sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral variables. Prevalence of special diet use and reasons for use were analyzed descriptively. Associations between independent and dependent variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.

RESULTS

Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of using special diets were 7.5% (weighted n = 17.7 million) and 2.9% (weighted n = 6.9 million), respectively. Individuals using special diets in the past 12 months were more likely female (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.21-1.74), not married (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.63-0.91), college-educated (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.25-3.11) and depressed (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.14-1.98). They more likely also used herbal products (OR = 2.35; 95%CI = 1.84-2.99), non-vitamin (OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.45-2.27) and vitamin supplements (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.24-1.99). Diets were mainly used to improve overall health (76.7%) or for general wellness/prevention (70.4%).

CONCLUSIONS

Special diets are mainly used for unspecific health reasons by those who are females, have a college degree or with depression, and commonly used in conjunction with herbs and dietary supplements.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Canada.2 Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM), University of Technology Sydney, Australia.3 Department of Rural Health, University of South Australia, Australia.4 Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, USA.5 Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.2 Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM), University of Technology Sydney, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28959918

Citation

Leung, Brenda, et al. "Special Diets in Modern America: Analysis of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey Data." Nutrition and Health, vol. 24, no. 1, 2018, pp. 11-18.
Leung B, Lauche R, Leach M, et al. Special diets in modern America: Analysis of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey data. Nutr Health. 2018;24(1):11-18.
Leung, B., Lauche, R., Leach, M., Zhang, Y., Cramer, H., & Sibbritt, D. (2018). Special diets in modern America: Analysis of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey data. Nutrition and Health, 24(1), 11-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/0260106017732719
Leung B, et al. Special Diets in Modern America: Analysis of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey Data. Nutr Health. 2018;24(1):11-18. PubMed PMID: 28959918.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Special diets in modern America: Analysis of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey data. AU - Leung,Brenda, AU - Lauche,Romy, AU - Leach,Matthew, AU - Zhang,Yan, AU - Cramer,Holger, AU - Sibbritt,David, Y1 - 2017/09/29/ PY - 2017/9/30/pubmed PY - 2018/9/22/medline PY - 2017/9/30/entrez KW - Diet KW - population characteristics KW - prevalence KW - survey SP - 11 EP - 18 JF - Nutrition and health JO - Nutr Health VL - 24 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Special diets are frequently used by the public but reasons for use and characteristics of users remain unclear. AIM: To determine prevalence of the use of special diets, the individual characteristics associated with their use and reasons for use. METHODS: The secondary analysis used data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional household interview survey of a nationally representative sample of non-hospitalized US adult populations (n = 34,525). The dependent variables in this secondary analysis were the use of a special diet (vegetarian, macrobiotic, Atkins, Pritikin, and Ornish) ever and during the past 12 months. Independent variables included sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral variables. Prevalence of special diet use and reasons for use were analyzed descriptively. Associations between independent and dependent variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of using special diets were 7.5% (weighted n = 17.7 million) and 2.9% (weighted n = 6.9 million), respectively. Individuals using special diets in the past 12 months were more likely female (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.21-1.74), not married (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.63-0.91), college-educated (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.25-3.11) and depressed (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.14-1.98). They more likely also used herbal products (OR = 2.35; 95%CI = 1.84-2.99), non-vitamin (OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.45-2.27) and vitamin supplements (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.24-1.99). Diets were mainly used to improve overall health (76.7%) or for general wellness/prevention (70.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Special diets are mainly used for unspecific health reasons by those who are females, have a college degree or with depression, and commonly used in conjunction with herbs and dietary supplements. SN - 0260-1060 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28959918/Special_diets_in_modern_America:_Analysis_of_the_2012_National_Health_Interview_Survey_data_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0260106017732719?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -