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Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among schoolchildren in Greece: the role of sex, degree of urbanisation and seasonality.
Br J Nutr. 2017 Oct; 118(7):550-558.BJ

Abstract

The current study was aiming to report the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status among schoolchildren in Greece and investigate the role of sex, urbanisation and seasonality on vitamin D status. A sample of 2386 schoolchildren (9-13 years old) from four distinct prefectures was examined. The prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <30 and <50 nmol/l (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively) was 5·2 and 52·5 %, respectively. Girls had a higher prevalence of 25(OH)D<30 (7·2 v. 3·2 %) and 50 nmol/l (57·0 v. 48·0 %) than boys (P<0·001). The highest prevalence rates of 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l (9·1 and 73·1 %, respectively) were observed during spring (April to June), whereas the lowest (1·5 and 31·9 %, respectively) during autumn (October to December). The prevalence of 25(OH)D<50 nmol/l was higher in urban/semi-urban than rural regions, particularly during spring months (74·6 v. 47·2 %; P<0·001). Female sex, urban/semi-urban region of residence and spring months were found to increase the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, with the highest OR observed for spring months (7·47; 95 % CI 3·23, 17·3 and 5·14; 95 % CI 3·84, 6·89 for 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l respectively). In conclusion, despite the southerly latitude, the prevalence of low vitamin D status among primary schoolchildren in Greece is comparable to or exceeds the prevalence reported among children and adolescents on a European level. Sub-populations at highest risk are girls in urban/semi-urban areas during spring months, thus indicating the need for effective initiatives to support adequate vitamin D status in these population groups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics,School of Health Science and Education,Harokopio University,70 El Venizelou Avenue,Kallithea,Athens 17671,Greece.1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics,School of Health Science and Education,Harokopio University,70 El Venizelou Avenue,Kallithea,Athens 17671,Greece.2Kellogg Europe,Talbot Road,Stretford,Manchester M16 0PU,UK.2Kellogg Europe,Talbot Road,Stretford,Manchester M16 0PU,UK.3School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research,University College Cork,Cork T12 DFK4,Republic of Ireland.3School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research,University College Cork,Cork T12 DFK4,Republic of Ireland.3School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research,University College Cork,Cork T12 DFK4,Republic of Ireland.3School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research,University College Cork,Cork T12 DFK4,Republic of Ireland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28965512

Citation

Manios, Yannis, et al. "Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency Among Schoolchildren in Greece: the Role of Sex, Degree of Urbanisation and Seasonality." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 118, no. 7, 2017, pp. 550-558.
Manios Y, Moschonis G, Hulshof T, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among schoolchildren in Greece: the role of sex, degree of urbanisation and seasonality. Br J Nutr. 2017;118(7):550-558.
Manios, Y., Moschonis, G., Hulshof, T., Bourhis, A. S., Hull, G. L. J., Dowling, K. G., Kiely, M. E., & Cashman, K. D. (2017). Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among schoolchildren in Greece: the role of sex, degree of urbanisation and seasonality. The British Journal of Nutrition, 118(7), 550-558. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517002422
Manios Y, et al. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency Among Schoolchildren in Greece: the Role of Sex, Degree of Urbanisation and Seasonality. Br J Nutr. 2017;118(7):550-558. PubMed PMID: 28965512.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among schoolchildren in Greece: the role of sex, degree of urbanisation and seasonality. AU - Manios,Yannis, AU - Moschonis,George, AU - Hulshof,Toine, AU - Bourhis,Anne-Sophie, AU - Hull,George L J, AU - Dowling,Kirsten G, AU - Kiely,Mairead E, AU - Cashman,Kevin D, Y1 - 2017/10/02/ PY - 2017/10/3/pubmed PY - 2017/10/19/medline PY - 2017/10/3/entrez KW - 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D KW - HGS Healthy Growth Study KW - LC liquid chromatography KW - VDSP Vitamin D Standardization Program KW - 25-Hydroxyvitamin D KW - Children KW - Seasonality KW - Sex KW - Urbanisation degree KW - Vitamin D SP - 550 EP - 558 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br J Nutr VL - 118 IS - 7 N2 - The current study was aiming to report the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status among schoolchildren in Greece and investigate the role of sex, urbanisation and seasonality on vitamin D status. A sample of 2386 schoolchildren (9-13 years old) from four distinct prefectures was examined. The prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <30 and <50 nmol/l (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively) was 5·2 and 52·5 %, respectively. Girls had a higher prevalence of 25(OH)D<30 (7·2 v. 3·2 %) and 50 nmol/l (57·0 v. 48·0 %) than boys (P<0·001). The highest prevalence rates of 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l (9·1 and 73·1 %, respectively) were observed during spring (April to June), whereas the lowest (1·5 and 31·9 %, respectively) during autumn (October to December). The prevalence of 25(OH)D<50 nmol/l was higher in urban/semi-urban than rural regions, particularly during spring months (74·6 v. 47·2 %; P<0·001). Female sex, urban/semi-urban region of residence and spring months were found to increase the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, with the highest OR observed for spring months (7·47; 95 % CI 3·23, 17·3 and 5·14; 95 % CI 3·84, 6·89 for 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l respectively). In conclusion, despite the southerly latitude, the prevalence of low vitamin D status among primary schoolchildren in Greece is comparable to or exceeds the prevalence reported among children and adolescents on a European level. Sub-populations at highest risk are girls in urban/semi-urban areas during spring months, thus indicating the need for effective initiatives to support adequate vitamin D status in these population groups. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28965512/Prevalence_of_vitamin_D_deficiency_and_insufficiency_among_schoolchildren_in_Greece:_the_role_of_sex_degree_of_urbanisation_and_seasonality_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114517002422/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -