Evaluation of the effect of test medium on total Cu body burden of nano CuO-exposed Daphnia magna: A TXRF spectroscopy study.Environ Pollut. 2017 Dec; 231(Pt 2):1488-1496.EP
Toxicity of Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles (NPs) to aquatic biota is usually mitigated in natural freshwater compared to organics-free artificial freshwater. The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether mitigated toxicity is accompanied by lower total copper body burden in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna and whether CuO NPs are more hazardous in this aspect than soluble Cu salts. Total copper body burden in different media (OECD202 artificial freshwater and two natural freshwaters) was measured by a relatively novel technique - total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy - which proved suitable for the analysis of individual juvenile daphnids. Mean copper body burden was 2.8-42 times higher in daphnids exposed to CuO NPs (0.05 mg Cu/L and 1 mg Cu/L) than in daphnids exposed to equal or equitoxic concentrations (0.025 mg Cu/L and 0.05 mg Cu/L) of CuSO4. Using natural freshwater instead of artificial one resulted in increased copper burden after exposure to CuO NPs but not after exposure to Cu salt. After 24 h post-exposure depuration in the presence of algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, total copper body burden in daphnids exposed to CuO NPs sharply decreased while in daphnids exposed to Cu salt it did not. Despite the CuO NP toxicity mitigating effect of natural freshwater, total copper body burden of aquatic crustaceans in natural waterbodies may be greater than could be predicted based on the results obtained using artificial freshwater as the test medium.