Uncovered Diversity of a Predominantly Andean Butterfly Clade in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: a Revision of the Genus Praepedaliodes Forster (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae, Satyrini).Neotrop Entomol. 2018 Apr; 47(2):211-255.NE
The genus Praepedaliodes Forster, 1964, the only representative of the mega-diverse mostly Andean Pedaliodes complex lineage in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, is revised. Prior to this study, four species were known, P. phanias (Hewitson, 1862), P. granulata (Butler, 1868), P. amussis (Thieme, 1905) and P. exul (Thieme, 1905). Here, a further six are described, all from SE Brazil, expanding to 10 the number of species in this genus. Lectotypes are designated for P. phanias, P. granulata and P. amussis. The genus is most diverse in the Serra da Mantiqueira (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais) and in the Serra Geral (Paraná, Santa Catarina) with seven species occurring in both ranges. Praepedaliodes phanias is the most widespread species and the only one found in the western part of the Atlantic Forest; only this species and P. duartei Dias, Dolibaina & Pyrcz n. sp. occurring to near sea level. Other species, P. zaccae Dolibaina, Dias & Pyrcz n. sp., P. francinii Freitas & Pyrcz n. sp., P. sequeirae Pyrcz, Dias & Dolbaina n. sp., P. landryi Pyrcz & Freitas n. sp. and P. pawlaki Pyrcz & Boyer n. sp. are strictly montane and the highest species richness is reached at 1400-1800 m. One species, P. sequeirae n. sp., is a narrow endemic found only at timberline in the Agulhas Negras massif above 2300 m. Immature stages are described for two species, P. phanias and P. landryi n. sp. Molecular data (barcode region of cytochrome oxidase, subunit I) and adult morphology, including male and female genitalia, support the genus as monophyletic, belonging to a predominantly Andean clade of the Pedaliodes Butler, 1867 complex. Morphological evidences, in particular female genitalia comparative analysis, indicate the genera Physcopedaliodes Forster, 1964 and Panyapedaliodes Forster, 1964 as possibly the closest relatives to Praepedaliodes. Molecular data are inconclusive in this respect.