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Is There a Link Between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Function in the Oldest-Old?
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2018; 73(4):499-505JG

Abstract

Background

The oldest-old (aged ≥85 years) are the fastest growing age group, with the highest risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. This study investigated whether cognitive reserve applies to the oldest-old. This has implications for cognitive interventions in this age group.

Methods

Baseline and 5-year follow-up data from the Newcastle 85+ Study were used (N = 845, mean age = 85.5, 38% male). A Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI) was created, including: education, social class, marital status, engagement in mental activities, social participation, and physical activity. Global (Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (Cognitive Drug Research Battery subtests assessing memory, attention, and speed) cognitive functions were assessed. Dementia diagnosis was determined by health records. Logistic regression analysis examined the association between CRI scores and incident dementia. Mixed effects models investigated baseline and longitudinal associations between the CRI scores and cognitive function. Analyses controlled for sex, age, depression, and cardiovascular disease history.

Results

Higher reserve associated with better cognitive performance on all baseline measures, but not 5-year rate of change. The CRI associated with prevalent, but not incident dementia.

Conclusions

In the oldest-old, higher reserve associated with better baseline global and domain-specific cognitive function and reduced risk of prevalent dementia; but not cognitive decline or incident dementia. Increasing reserve could promote cognitive function in the oldest-old. The results suggest there would be little impact on trajectories, but replication is needed. Development of preventative strategies would benefit from identifying the role of each factor in building reserve and why rate of change is not affected.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cognitive Ageing and Impairment Neurosciences Laboratory, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.Newcastle University Institute for Ageing and Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.Department of Rehabilitation, Aged and Extended Care, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.Centre for Dementia Prevention, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.Cognitive Ageing and Impairment Neurosciences Laboratory, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.Newcastle University Institute for Ageing, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. University of Copenhagen Center for Healthy Aging, Copenhagen, Denmark.Newcastle University Institute for Ageing and Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.Newcastle University Institute for Ageing and Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.Newcastle University Institute for Ageing and Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28977420

Citation

Lavrencic, Louise M., et al. "Is There a Link Between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Function in the Oldest-Old?" The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 73, no. 4, 2018, pp. 499-505.
Lavrencic LM, Richardson C, Harrison SL, et al. Is There a Link Between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Function in the Oldest-Old? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018;73(4):499-505.
Lavrencic, L. M., Richardson, C., Harrison, S. L., Muniz-Terrera, G., Keage, H. A. D., Brittain, K., ... Stephan, B. C. M. (2018). Is There a Link Between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Function in the Oldest-Old? The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 73(4), pp. 499-505. doi:10.1093/gerona/glx140.
Lavrencic LM, et al. Is There a Link Between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Function in the Oldest-Old. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 03 14;73(4):499-505. PubMed PMID: 28977420.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Is There a Link Between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Function in the Oldest-Old? AU - Lavrencic,Louise M, AU - Richardson,Connor, AU - Harrison,Stephanie L, AU - Muniz-Terrera,Graciela, AU - Keage,Hannah A D, AU - Brittain,Katie, AU - Kirkwood,Thomas B L, AU - Jagger,Carol, AU - Robinson,Louise, AU - Stephan,Blossom C M, PY - 2017/04/06/received PY - 2017/07/17/accepted PY - 2017/10/5/pubmed PY - 2019/3/7/medline PY - 2017/10/5/entrez SP - 499 EP - 505 JF - The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences JO - J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. VL - 73 IS - 4 N2 - Background: The oldest-old (aged ≥85 years) are the fastest growing age group, with the highest risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. This study investigated whether cognitive reserve applies to the oldest-old. This has implications for cognitive interventions in this age group. Methods: Baseline and 5-year follow-up data from the Newcastle 85+ Study were used (N = 845, mean age = 85.5, 38% male). A Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI) was created, including: education, social class, marital status, engagement in mental activities, social participation, and physical activity. Global (Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (Cognitive Drug Research Battery subtests assessing memory, attention, and speed) cognitive functions were assessed. Dementia diagnosis was determined by health records. Logistic regression analysis examined the association between CRI scores and incident dementia. Mixed effects models investigated baseline and longitudinal associations between the CRI scores and cognitive function. Analyses controlled for sex, age, depression, and cardiovascular disease history. Results: Higher reserve associated with better cognitive performance on all baseline measures, but not 5-year rate of change. The CRI associated with prevalent, but not incident dementia. Conclusions: In the oldest-old, higher reserve associated with better baseline global and domain-specific cognitive function and reduced risk of prevalent dementia; but not cognitive decline or incident dementia. Increasing reserve could promote cognitive function in the oldest-old. The results suggest there would be little impact on trajectories, but replication is needed. Development of preventative strategies would benefit from identifying the role of each factor in building reserve and why rate of change is not affected. SN - 1758-535X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28977420/Is_There_a_Link_Between_Cognitive_Reserve_and_Cognitive_Function_in_the_Oldest_Old L2 - https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/gerona/glx140 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -