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Relation of Odor Identification with Alzheimer's Disease Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Cognition.
J Alzheimers Dis 2017; 60(3):1025-1034JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Impaired olfactory function is an early characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it remains unclear if odor identification also relates to early markers of AD in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the association between odor identification and amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) and total tau (t-tau) concentrations in CSF. In addition, to examine the relation between odor identification and cognitive function at baseline and at follow-up, and whether these associations are moderated by CSF Aβ42 and t-tau and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype.

METHODS

We included 160 individuals (40 with normal cognition, 45 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 42 with AD-type dementia, and 26 individuals with non-AD dementia) from the EDAR study. Individuals were recruited from six memory clinics across Europe. Odor identification was tested with the brief University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. CSF Aβ42 and t-tau were assessed with INNO-BIA AlzBio3 Luminex assay. Neuropsychological assessment included tests for verbal memory, verbal fluency, attention, executive function, and visuoconstruction. Follow-up was performed within 3 years after baseline.

RESULTS

Lower odor identification scores correlated with increased CSF t-tau concentrations and with lower scores on all cognitive measures at baseline independent of diagnostic group. Lower odor identification scores predicted decline on the MMSE in the total group, and decline on wordlist learning and delayed recall in APOE ɛ4 carriers and in individuals with abnormal Aβ42.

CONCLUSION

Odor identification impairment may be an indicator of neuronal injury rather than amyloid pathology.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Centre Limburg, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Centre Limburg, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Centre Limburg, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Neurochemistry Laboratory and Biobank, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Centre Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Neurochemistry Laboratory and Biobank, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Centre Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.Danish Dementia Research Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty of Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Germany.Danish Dementia Research Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.ADx NeuroSciences, Gent, Belgium.Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Centre Limburg, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Centre Limburg, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28984603

Citation

Reijs, Babette L R., et al. "Relation of Odor Identification With Alzheimer's Disease Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Cognition." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, vol. 60, no. 3, 2017, pp. 1025-1034.
Reijs BLR, Ramakers IHGB, Elias-Sonnenschein L, et al. Relation of Odor Identification with Alzheimer's Disease Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Cognition. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;60(3):1025-1034.
Reijs, B. L. R., Ramakers, I. H. G. B., Elias-Sonnenschein, L., Teunissen, C. E., Koel-Simmelink, M., Tsolaki, M., ... Visser, P. J. (2017). Relation of Odor Identification with Alzheimer's Disease Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Cognition. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, 60(3), pp. 1025-1034. doi:10.3233/JAD-170564.
Reijs BLR, et al. Relation of Odor Identification With Alzheimer's Disease Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Cognition. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;60(3):1025-1034. PubMed PMID: 28984603.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Relation of Odor Identification with Alzheimer's Disease Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Cognition. AU - Reijs,Babette L R, AU - Ramakers,Inez H G B, AU - Elias-Sonnenschein,Lyzel, AU - Teunissen,Charlotte E, AU - Koel-Simmelink,Marleen, AU - Tsolaki,Magda, AU - Wahlund,Lars-Olof, AU - Waldemar,Gunhild, AU - Hausner,Lucrezia, AU - Johannsen,Peter, AU - Vanderstichele,Hugo, AU - Verhey,Frans, AU - Devanand,D P, AU - Visser,Pieter Jelle, PY - 2017/10/7/entrez PY - 2017/10/7/pubmed PY - 2018/5/31/medline KW - Alzheimer’s disease KW - amyloid-β (1–42) KW - cerebrospinal fluid KW - mild cognitive impairment KW - olfaction SP - 1025 EP - 1034 JF - Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD JO - J. Alzheimers Dis. VL - 60 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Impaired olfactory function is an early characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it remains unclear if odor identification also relates to early markers of AD in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between odor identification and amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) and total tau (t-tau) concentrations in CSF. In addition, to examine the relation between odor identification and cognitive function at baseline and at follow-up, and whether these associations are moderated by CSF Aβ42 and t-tau and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. METHODS: We included 160 individuals (40 with normal cognition, 45 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 42 with AD-type dementia, and 26 individuals with non-AD dementia) from the EDAR study. Individuals were recruited from six memory clinics across Europe. Odor identification was tested with the brief University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. CSF Aβ42 and t-tau were assessed with INNO-BIA AlzBio3 Luminex assay. Neuropsychological assessment included tests for verbal memory, verbal fluency, attention, executive function, and visuoconstruction. Follow-up was performed within 3 years after baseline. RESULTS: Lower odor identification scores correlated with increased CSF t-tau concentrations and with lower scores on all cognitive measures at baseline independent of diagnostic group. Lower odor identification scores predicted decline on the MMSE in the total group, and decline on wordlist learning and delayed recall in APOE ɛ4 carriers and in individuals with abnormal Aβ42. CONCLUSION: Odor identification impairment may be an indicator of neuronal injury rather than amyloid pathology. SN - 1875-8908 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28984603/Relation_of_Odor_Identification_with_Alzheimer's_Disease_Markers_in_Cerebrospinal_Fluid_and_Cognition_ L2 - https://content.iospress.com/openurl?genre=article&id=doi:10.3233/JAD-170564 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -