Degradation of propyl paraben by activated persulfate using iron-containing magnetic carbon xerogels: investigation of water matrix and process synergy effects.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Dec; 25(35):34801-34810.ES
An advanced oxidation process comprising an iron-containing magnetic carbon xerogel (CX/Fe) and persulfate was tested for the degradation of propyl paraben (PP), a contaminant of emerging concern, in various water matrices. Moreover, the effect of 20 kHz ultrasound or light irradiation on process performance was evaluated. The pseudo-first order degradation rate of PP was found to increase with increasing SPS concentration (25-500 mg/L) and decreasing PP concentration (1690-420 μg/L) and solution pH (9-3). Furthermore, the effect of water matrix on kinetics was detrimental depending on the complexity (i.e., wastewater, river water, bottled water) and the concentration of matrix constituents (i.e., humic acid, chloride, bicarbonate). The simultaneous use of CX/Fe and ultrasound as persulfate activators resulted in a synergistic effect, with the level of synergy (between 35 and 50%) depending on the water matrix. Conversely, coupling CX/Fe with simulated solar or UVA irradiation resulted in a cumulative effect in experiments performed in ultrapure water.