Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis in infants with emphasis on skin microbiota in the diaper area.Int J Dermatol. 2018 Mar; 57(3):265-275.IJ
Diaper dermatitis is the most common inflammatory skin eruption within the diaper area in infants and toddlers. Although it rarely causes problems for prolonged periods of time, it causes considerable distress for both infants and parents. Diapered skin is exposed to friction, excessive hydration, varying pH, and is in constant contact with urine and feces, both of which are highly irritant to the skin. The three most common types of diaper dermatitis include chaffing dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and diaper candidiasis. However, a variety of other skin conditions may manifest in the diaper area. Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are most frequently isolated from the affected area and are thought to have a predominant role in diaper dermatitis. The review includes an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, and common skin microbiota in the diaper area. State-of-the-art strategies for diagnosis, management, and prevention of diaper dermatitis are also included. Appropriate skin care can help in the prevention of diaper dermatitis and can aid the reparation of the skin. This review discusses common causes, skin microbiota within the diapered area, differential diagnosis, and finally possible prevention and treatment recommendations. Recent findings have proven that the key to efficient eradication of irritant diaper dermatitis lies in its prevention.