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Feasibility of Using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire II as a Self-Report Measure for Individuals with a Psychiatric Disorder Receiving Music Therapy.



No specific instrument has been developed for measuring alliance during music therapy.


To evaluate the feasibility of using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire II (HAq-II) as a self-report measure for individuals receiving treatment for a psychiatric disorder. Specifically, we examined the percent of patients who filled out the questionnaire, and when completed, whether there were any missing items. We also examined internal consistency and associations between patient variables and HAq-II scores.


Between October 2013 and April 2014, we invited 45 individuals with a psychiatric disorder, who were also receiving music therapy, to fill out the HAq-II. We also collected clinical data from each person's record.


Thirty-one (69%) of the 45 invited patients filled out the HAq-II, and of those completed, only three had missing items. Of the 45 invited patients, thirty (67%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, and 11 (24%) were diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders. In terms of diagnosis and other clinical variables, no statistically significant differences were found between the 31 patients who filled out the HAq-II and the 14 patients who did not return the questionnaire. The median HAq-II score was 5.11 (range 3.74-6.00), indicating a relatively high alliance. We did not find any statistically significant associations between the HAq-II scores and potential predictors of interest. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.85.


Completion of the HAq-II was fairly high in this group of individuals with psychiatric diagnoses who were receiving music therapy. Internal consistency of the HAq-II was acceptable. Relatively high HAq-II scores suggest a high degree of therapeutic alliance, but the external validity of the HAq-II and the relationship between scores and therapy needs further evaluation.


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  • Authors+Show Affiliations


    Aalborg University Hospital, Psychiatry. Aalborg University, Institute for Communication and Psychology.


    Aalborg University Hospital, Psychiatry.


    Aalborg University Hospital, Psychiatry.

    Aalborg University Hospital, Psychiatry. Aalborg University, Department of Clinical Medicine.


    Journal of music therapy 54:3 2017 Nov 01 pg 287-299


    Cooperative Behavior
    Feasibility Studies
    Mental Disorders
    Middle Aged
    Music Therapy
    Self Report
    Surveys and Questionnaires

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article



    PubMed ID