Longitudinal Measurements of Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Susceptibility to Insecticides in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi: Associations with Insecticide Use and Insect Control Recommendations.Insects. 2017 Oct 13; 8(4)I
Concentration-response assays were conducted from 2008 through 2015 to measure the susceptibility of field populations of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) from the Delta regions of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi to acephate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, permethrin, and sulfoxaflor. A total of 229 field populations were examined for susceptibility to acephate, 145 for susceptibility to imidacloprid, and 208 for susceptibility to thiamethoxam. Permethrin assays were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to measure levels of pyrethroid resistance in 44 field populations, and sulfoxaflor assays were conducted against 24 field populations in 2015. Resistance to acephate and permethrin is as high or higher than that previously reported, although some populations, especially those exposed to permethrin, appear to be susceptible. Variable assay responses were measured for populations exposed to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Average response metrics suggest that populations are generally susceptible to the neonicotinoids, but a few populations from cotton fields experiencing control problems exhibited elevated LC50s. Efforts to associate variability in LC50s with recorded use of insecticides and estimated cotton insect losses and control costs suggest that intensive use of insecticides over several decades may have elevated general detoxifying enzymes in L. lineolaris and some field populations may be exhibiting resistance to multiple classes of insecticide. These results suggest that efforts should be made to manage these pests more efficiently with a reduced use of insecticides and alternative controls.