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Infrequent Testing of Women for Rectal Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in the United States.
Clin Infect Dis. 2018 02 01; 66(4):570-575.CI

Abstract

Background

Anal sex is a common sexual behavior among women that increases their risk of acquiring rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC).

Methods

We estimated the frequency and positivity of rectal CT and GC tests for women aged 15-60 years performed by a large US commercial laboratory between November 2012 and September 2015. We also estimated the frequency and positivity of pharyngeal and genital specimens also performed on the same date. Among women with a positive CT or GC result, we estimated the frequency and positivity of recommended repeat testing within 12 months.

Results

Of 5499 women who had rectal CT and GC tests, positivity was 10.8%. On the same date, approximately 80% also had genital CT tests, genital GC tests, and pharyngeal GC tests, while 40% had pharyngeal CT tests. Rectal CT or GC infection was associated with genital CT or GC infection, but 46.5% of rectal CT and GC infections would not have been identified with genital testing alone. Among women with a rectal CT or GC infection, only 20.0% had a recommended repeat rectal test. Of those who had a repeat test, 17.7% were positive.

Conclusions

Testing women for rectal CT and GC was infrequent, but positive tests were often found in women with negative genital tests. Most women with positive rectal tests were not retested. Interventions are needed to increase extragenital CT and GC testing of at-risk women.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, Burlington, North Carolina.Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, Burlington, North Carolina.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29028971

Citation

Tao, Guoyu, et al. "Infrequent Testing of Women for Rectal Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in the United States." Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, vol. 66, no. 4, 2018, pp. 570-575.
Tao G, Hoover KW, Nye MB, et al. Infrequent Testing of Women for Rectal Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(4):570-575.
Tao, G., Hoover, K. W., Nye, M. B., Peters, P. J., Gift, T. L., & Body, B. A. (2018). Infrequent Testing of Women for Rectal Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 66(4), 570-575. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix857
Tao G, et al. Infrequent Testing of Women for Rectal Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 02 1;66(4):570-575. PubMed PMID: 29028971.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Infrequent Testing of Women for Rectal Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in the United States. AU - Tao,Guoyu, AU - Hoover,Karen W, AU - Nye,Melinda B, AU - Peters,Philip J, AU - Gift,Thomas L, AU - Body,Barbara A, PY - 2017/05/30/received PY - 2017/10/04/accepted PY - 2017/10/14/pubmed PY - 2019/10/23/medline PY - 2017/10/14/entrez KW - Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) KW - Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) KW - genital, rectal, and pharyngeal specimen SP - 570 EP - 575 JF - Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America JO - Clin Infect Dis VL - 66 IS - 4 N2 - Background: Anal sex is a common sexual behavior among women that increases their risk of acquiring rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Methods: We estimated the frequency and positivity of rectal CT and GC tests for women aged 15-60 years performed by a large US commercial laboratory between November 2012 and September 2015. We also estimated the frequency and positivity of pharyngeal and genital specimens also performed on the same date. Among women with a positive CT or GC result, we estimated the frequency and positivity of recommended repeat testing within 12 months. Results: Of 5499 women who had rectal CT and GC tests, positivity was 10.8%. On the same date, approximately 80% also had genital CT tests, genital GC tests, and pharyngeal GC tests, while 40% had pharyngeal CT tests. Rectal CT or GC infection was associated with genital CT or GC infection, but 46.5% of rectal CT and GC infections would not have been identified with genital testing alone. Among women with a rectal CT or GC infection, only 20.0% had a recommended repeat rectal test. Of those who had a repeat test, 17.7% were positive. Conclusions: Testing women for rectal CT and GC was infrequent, but positive tests were often found in women with negative genital tests. Most women with positive rectal tests were not retested. Interventions are needed to increase extragenital CT and GC testing of at-risk women. SN - 1537-6591 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29028971/Infrequent_Testing_of_Women_for_Rectal_Chlamydia_and_Gonorrhea_in_the_United_States_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/cid/cix857 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -