Evaluation of serologic assays for diagnosis of whooping cough.J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Sep; 26(9):1818-23.JC
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA response to Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertussis toxin (PT) and a neutralization test (NT) in a microplate tissue culture assay for neutralizing antibodies to PT were evaluated in paired sera from 90 patients with culture-confirmed pertussis. Eighty patients were children (age, less than 15 years), and 6 of 80 children had been immunized with three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine as infants. A significant titer rise (greater than or equal to twofold), determined by ELISA, of IgG, IgM, and IgA to FHA was recorded in 75 (83%), 28 (31%), and 47 (52%) of the patients, respectively. A significant titer rise to PT in IgG was found in 83 (92%), IgM in 29 (32%), and IgA in 44 (49%) of the patients. A significant titer rise to FHA or PT in IgG was found in 88 (98%) of the patients, in combination with a significant rise in the titer of IgA to FHA. These data were obtained in a single serum dilution of 1:500. Titrations performed later showed that the titer rise to FHA in IgG was a mean of 6.5-fold, which was significantly lower than the mean 67.0-fold rise in IgG to PT (P less than 0.001). The mean titer of IgG to FHA in convalescent-phase serum was 270, which was also significantly lower than the mean PT titer of 2,943 (P less than 0.001). A significant rise (greater than or equal to fourfold) in PT titer by NT was found in 58 of 83 (70%) of the patients. The NT was significantly less sensitive than the ELISA for the determination of the IgG titer to PT (P< 0.001). Results showed that a 100% (90 of 90) sensitivity in terms of titer rises was achieved in the serologic diagnosis of pertussis by ELISA in a single-point determination of the IgG and IgA responses to FHA and of the IgG response to PT.