Preparation and characterization of microencapsulated DwPT trivalent vaccine using water soluble chitosan and its in-vitro and in-vivo immunological properties.Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Feb; 107(Pt B):2044-2056.IJ
The paper explained the microencapsulation of three different antigenic materials viz. Diphtheria toxoid (DT), whole cell pertussis antigens (PT and FHA) and tetanus toxoid (TT) by coacervation method using water soluble chitosan as a polymer crosslinked by vanillin/TPP co-crosslinkers for the development of oral trivalent DwPT vaccine. Instrumental characterization of chitosan microspheres suggested specific interaction with vanillin/TPP, higher thermal stability, amorphous nature, spherical morphology with size less than 2μm along with positive charge density offering mucoadhesive properties. Furthermore, PT and FHA showed higher encapsulation up to 94% followed by TT and DT. Cumulative release rate of DT was (68.47%), TT (73.67%), PT (43%) and FHA (53%). Release kinetics interpreted using DD solver program, indicated protein release followed first order kinetics and obeyed Korsmeyer-peppas model, stating fickian diffusion relates to diffusion, erosion and controlled release rate of the encapsulated toxoids. Application of formulations on caco-2 cell line showed negligible cytotoxic effect and efficient uptake of FITC labelled microspheres. The obtained in-vivo results suggests that the final trivalent DwPT formulation were having successful elicitation of both systemic (IgG) and mucosal (sIgA) immune response in balb/c mice. Overall studies indicated that DwPT formulation could be a suitable alternative to available injectable DaPT vaccine.