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Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels in depressive and anxiety disorders.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018 Jan; 87:53-62.P

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated to current depression. However, it is unclear whether this association extends to remitted depression and to anxiety disorders. This study examined the relationship of PUFAs with the presence and clinical characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders.

METHODS

Cross-sectional data was used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, including persons with current pure depressive disorder (n=304), current pure anxiety disorder (n=548), current comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder (n=529), remitted depressive/anxiety disorder(s) (n=897), and healthy controls (n=634). Clinical characteristics included severity, subtypes, age of onset, duration of depression and anxiety and antidepressant use. Absolute values of omega-3 (N-3) and omega-6 (N-6) PUFAs and relative measures (as ratio of total Fatty Acids: the N-3:FA and N-6:FA ratio) in plasma were assessed using a nuclear magnetic resonance platform.

RESULTS

Compared to controls, current comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder patients had lower N-3 PUFA levels (Cohen's d=0.09, p=0.012), and lower N-3:FA ratios (p=0.002, Cohen's d=0.11) as did current pure depressive disorder patients (Cohen's d=0.13, p=0.021), whereas N-6 PUFA levels were not different. No differences in PUFA levels were found between remitted patients and controls. Within patients, lower N-3 PUFA levels were only associated with higher depression severity (Beta=-0.42, p=0.023), whereas for N-6 PUFA levels and other clinical characteristics no clear association was observed. PUFA alterations were not associated with pure anxiety.

CONCLUSION

It can be concluded that patients with a current depressive episode (especially the more severe cases with comorbid anxiety) have circulating N-3 PUFA levels lower than those in remission and healthy controls. No relationship was detected for N-6 PUFA levels.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute and Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Medical Centre, A.J. Ernststraat 1187, 1081 HL, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: c.thesing@ggzingeest.nl.Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute and Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Medical Centre, A.J. Ernststraat 1187, 1081 HL, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: m.bot@ggzingeest.nl.Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute and Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Medical Centre, A.J. Ernststraat 1187, 1081 HL, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: y.milaneschi@ggzingeest.nl.Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address: E.J.Giltay@lumc.nl.Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute and Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Medical Centre, A.J. Ernststraat 1187, 1081 HL, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: b.penninx@vumc.nl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29040890

Citation

Thesing, Carisha S., et al. "Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid Levels in Depressive and Anxiety Disorders." Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 87, 2018, pp. 53-62.
Thesing CS, Bot M, Milaneschi Y, et al. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels in depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018;87:53-62.
Thesing, C. S., Bot, M., Milaneschi, Y., Giltay, E. J., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2018). Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels in depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 87, 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.10.005
Thesing CS, et al. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid Levels in Depressive and Anxiety Disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018;87:53-62. PubMed PMID: 29040890.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels in depressive and anxiety disorders. AU - Thesing,Carisha S, AU - Bot,Mariska, AU - Milaneschi,Yuri, AU - Giltay,Erik J, AU - Penninx,Brenda W J H, Y1 - 2017/10/06/ PY - 2017/05/23/received PY - 2017/09/15/revised PY - 2017/10/03/accepted PY - 2017/10/19/pubmed PY - 2018/7/14/medline PY - 2017/10/18/entrez KW - Anxiety disorder KW - Depressive disorder KW - Fatty acids KW - Omega-3 KW - Omega-6 KW - Polyunsaturated fatty acids SP - 53 EP - 62 JF - Psychoneuroendocrinology JO - Psychoneuroendocrinology VL - 87 N2 - BACKGROUND: Blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated to current depression. However, it is unclear whether this association extends to remitted depression and to anxiety disorders. This study examined the relationship of PUFAs with the presence and clinical characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, including persons with current pure depressive disorder (n=304), current pure anxiety disorder (n=548), current comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder (n=529), remitted depressive/anxiety disorder(s) (n=897), and healthy controls (n=634). Clinical characteristics included severity, subtypes, age of onset, duration of depression and anxiety and antidepressant use. Absolute values of omega-3 (N-3) and omega-6 (N-6) PUFAs and relative measures (as ratio of total Fatty Acids: the N-3:FA and N-6:FA ratio) in plasma were assessed using a nuclear magnetic resonance platform. RESULTS: Compared to controls, current comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder patients had lower N-3 PUFA levels (Cohen's d=0.09, p=0.012), and lower N-3:FA ratios (p=0.002, Cohen's d=0.11) as did current pure depressive disorder patients (Cohen's d=0.13, p=0.021), whereas N-6 PUFA levels were not different. No differences in PUFA levels were found between remitted patients and controls. Within patients, lower N-3 PUFA levels were only associated with higher depression severity (Beta=-0.42, p=0.023), whereas for N-6 PUFA levels and other clinical characteristics no clear association was observed. PUFA alterations were not associated with pure anxiety. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that patients with a current depressive episode (especially the more severe cases with comorbid anxiety) have circulating N-3 PUFA levels lower than those in remission and healthy controls. No relationship was detected for N-6 PUFA levels. SN - 1873-3360 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29040890/Omega_3_and_omega_6_fatty_acid_levels_in_depressive_and_anxiety_disorders_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0306-4530(17)30481-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -