Cost-effectiveness of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for infants in mainland China.Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2018 01 02; 14(1):36-44.HV
The aims of this study were to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine for the prevention of childhood pneumonia, meningitis and other vaccine-preventable diseases in mainland China from a societal perspective and to provide information about the addition of the Hib vaccine to Chinese immunization programs.
A decision tree and the Markov model were used to estimate the costs and effectiveness of the Hib vaccine versus no Hib vaccine for a birth cohort of 100,000 children in 2016. The disease burden was estimated from the literature, statistical yearbooks and field surveys. Vaccine costs were calculated from government reports and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) website. The WHO cost-effectiveness thresholds were used to evaluate the Hib vaccine intervention. A one-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed to evaluate the parameter uncertainties.
Within the hypothetical cohort, under a vaccination coverage of 90%, the Hib vaccine could reduce 91.4% of Hib pneumonia and 88.3% of Hib meningitis; the Hib vaccine could also prevent 25 deaths, 24 meningitis sequelae cases and 9 hearing loss cases caused by Hib infection. From a societal perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the Hib vaccine compared with no vaccination was US$ 13,640.1 at the market price, which was less than 3 times the GDP per capita of China in 2016. The ICER of the Hib vaccine was US$ -59,122.9 at the UNICEF price, indicating a cost savings. The largest portion of the uncertainty in the result was caused by the annual incidence of all-cause pneumonia, proportion of pneumonia caused by Hi, vaccine costs per dose, annual incidence of Hib meningitis and costs per episode of meningitis. The models were robust considering parameter uncertainties.
The Hib vaccine is a cost-effective intervention among children in mainland China. The cost of Hib vaccine should be reduced, and it should be introduced into Chinese immunization programs.