Emerging oral targeted therapies in inflammatory bowel diseases: opportunities and challenges.Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2017 Oct; 10(10):773-790.TA
To improve quality of life and prevent long-term risks in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), it is essential to suppress inflammatory activity adequately. However, corticosteroids are only suitable for therapy of acute flares and the evidence for positive effects of immunosuppressive substances like azathioprine or 6-mercapropurine is mainly limited to maintenance of remission. In addition, only subgroups of patients benefit from biologicals targeting tumour necrosis factor α or α4β7 integrins. In summary, until now the disease activity is not sufficiently controlled in a relevant fraction of the patients with IBD. Thus, there is an urge for the development of new substances in the therapy of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Fortunately, new oral and parenteral substances are in the pipeline. This review will focus on oral substances, which have already passed phase II studies successfully at this stage. In this article, we summarize data regarding AJM300, phosphatidylcholine (LT-02), mongersen, ozanimod, filgotinib and tofacitinib. AJM300 and ozanimod were tested in patients with ulcerative colitis and target lymphocyte trafficking through inhibition of the α subunit of integrin, respectively binding to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (subtypes 1 and 5) on lymphocytes. Mongersen was utilized in patients with Crohn's disease and accelerates the degradation of SMAD7 mRNA, which consequently strengthens the mainly anti-inflammatory signalling pathway of transforming growth factor β1. Various Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors were developed, which inhibit the intracellular signalling pathway of cytokines. For example, the JAK1 blocker filgotinib was tested in Crohn's disease, whereas the JAK1/3 inhibitor tofacitinib was tested in clinical trials for both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. A different therapeutic approach is the substitution of phosphatidylcholine (LT-02), which might recover the colonic mucus. Taken together, clinical trials with these new agents have opened avenues for further clinical studies and it can be expected that at least some of these agents will be finally approved for clinical therapy.