The toxicity of ionic liquid 1-decylpyridinium bromide to the algae Scenedesmus obliquus: Growth inhibition, phototoxicity, and oxidative stress.Sci Total Environ. 2018 May 01; 622-623:1572-1580.ST
Although ionic liquids (ILs) are unlikely to act as air contaminants, their high solubility and slow degradation make them a potential threat to the aquatic environment. The IL 1-decylpyridinium bromide ([DPy]Br) is a common type of pyridine IL, which has varied applications such as in extraction, separation, and catalytic synthesis. Herein, the toxicity of [DPy]Br to S. obliquus is determined. Growth was inhibited by high-concentration [DPy]Br, whereas it had a hormetic effect at low concentrations. The IC50-96h was approximately 0.06mg/L. The cell membrane permeability of S. obliquus increased with [DPy]Br concentration, indicating that [DPy]Br can cause damage to the algae cell structure. Chlorophyll content decreased at high [DPy]Br concentration; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, such as the maximum effective quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), potential activity of PSII (Fv/F0), yield of the photochemical quantum [Y(II)], and the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) were affected, suggesting that [DPy]Br can damage PSII. The ROS fluorescent images revealed that the morphology of cells changed gradually from fusiform to round. High ROS levels were observed with high concentrations of [DPy]Br, indicating that [DPy]Br induced oxidative stress on S. obliquus. The SOD and CAT activities increased when the concentration was lower than IC50, whereas they decreased when the concentration was higher than IC50. The relative ROS content was significantly correlated with growth inhibition rate, cell membrane permeability, chlorophyll content, and SOD and CAT activities. The increase of ROS content in algal cells is an important toxicological mechanism of [DPy]Br to S. obliquus.