Antouka Super® induced oxidative stress and reproductive toxicity in male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).Heliyon. 2017 Oct; 3(10):e00410.H
Antouka Super® (AS), a combination of insecticide (Pirimiphos-methyl 16% and Permethrin 3%), is one of the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, public health, home and garden, with high potential for human and animal exposure.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of AS on the serum testosterone, oxidative stress biomarkers, testis histology and fertility of male Japanese quail.
Thirty-two (32) male Japanese quails twenty-eight (28) days were randomly divided into four groups: C0 (control), T1, T2 and T3, exposed daily (gavage) to 0, 37.5, 56.25 and 75 mg of AS/kg body weight (b.w), respectively, for 49 consecutive days and were analysed for fertility. Control and experimental male quails were cohabited, for two days, with untreated female quails and sperm positive female quail were analysed for paternal-mediated toxicity. After completion of fertility studies quails were sacrificed and analysed for reproductive endpoints.
There was a dose dependent decrease of the relative weight of testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Additionally, testis total proteins and serum testosterone levels were decreased in AS treated quails (p < 0.05). A decrease of sperm motility, viability and concentration per vas deferens, and an increase of sperm anomalies were recorded in AS exposed quails with respect to the controls. The embryonic and post-embryonic mortality rate were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in group T3 (25.00 ± 3.40% and 31.66 ± 10.22% respectively) than in control group (6.25 ± 3.98% and 9.54 ± 3.72% respectively). The superoxide dismutase (SOD), total peroxidase (POD) and catalase activity (CAT) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower treated than control quails, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in groups T1, T2 and T3 (13.00 ± 0.96, 23.50 ± 1.35 and 29.08 ± 1.58 nmol/mg tissues respectively) compared to the control one (9.32 ± 0.67nmol/mg tissues). Histopathological examination of the testes of AS treated quails revealed testicular lesions characterized by moderate to severe degenerative changes of seminiferous tubules, incomplete spermatogenesis and depletion in the germ layers of seminiferous tubules in which immature spermatozoa were hardly seen.
From the above study, it can be inferred that AS (56.25 and 75) mg/kg b.w decrease body and relative organ weights and induces testicular lesions. Also, AS increases the level of MDA while it reduces the levels of enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers, serum testosterone and reproductive indices of intoxicated quails and their offspring. However, further work is needed to establish the genetic toxicology and immunohistochemistry of caspase-3 and claudin-1.