The ClosER study: results from a three-year pan-European longitudinal surveillance of antibiotic resistance among prevalent Clostridium difficile ribotypes, 2011-2014.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018 Jul; 24(7):724-731.CM
Until the introduction of fidaxomicin, antimicrobial treatment for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was limited to metronidazole and vancomycin. The changing epidemiology of CDI and the emergence of epidemic C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 necessitate continued surveillance to identify shifts in antibiotic susceptibility. ClosER, currently the largest pan-European epidemiological study of C. difficile ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility, aimed to undertake antimicrobial resistance surveillance pre- and post-introduction of fidaxomicin.
Between July 2011 and July 2014, 39 sites across 22 European countries submitted 2830 C. difficile isolates for ribotyping, toxin testing and susceptibility testing to metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin, rifampicin, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, imipenem, chloramphenicol and tigecycline.
Ribotypes 027, 014, 001, 078, 020, 002, 126, 015 and 005 were most frequently isolated, and emergent ribotypes 198 and 356 were identified in Hungary and Italy, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to fidaxomicin, with scarce resistance to metronidazole (0.2%, 6/2694), vancomycin (0.1%, 2/2694) and tigecycline (0%). Rifampicin, moxifloxacin and clindamycin resistance was evident in multiple ribotypes. Lack of ribotype diversity correlated with greater antimicrobial resistance. Epidemic ribotypes (027/001) were associated with multiple antimicrobial resistance, and ribotypes 017, 018 and 356 with high-level resistance. Additional factors may also influence local ribotype prevalence.
Fidaxomicin susceptibility was retained post-introduction, and resistance to metronidazole and vancomycin was rare. Continued surveillance is needed, with more accurate classification and clarification of ribotype subtypes to further understand their role in the spread of resistance. Other factors may also influence changes in prevalence of C. difficile ribotypes with reduced antibiotic susceptibility.