Exon Skipping Therapy Using Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers in the mdx52 Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1687:123-141.MM
Exon skipping therapy using synthetic DNA-like molecules called antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) is a promising therapeutic candidate for overcoming the dystrophin mutation that causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This treatment involves splicing out the frame-disrupting segment of the dystrophin mRNA, which restores the reading frame and produces a truncated yet functional dystrophin protein. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) is the safest ASO for patients among ASOs and has recently been approved under the accelerated approval pathway by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first drug for DMD. Here, we describe the methodology and protocol of PMO transfection and evaluation of the exon skipping efficacy in the mdx52 mouse, an exon 52 deletion model of DMD produced by gene targeting. The mdx52 mouse model offers advantages over the mdx mouse, a spontaneous DMD model with a nonsense mutation in exon 23, in terms of the deletion in a hotspot of deletion mutations in DMD patients, the analysis of caveolae and also Dp140 and Dp260, shorter dystrophin isoforms.