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Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases.
Nutrients. 2017 Oct 25; 9(11)N

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes.

METHODS

This review summarizes: (1) the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2) the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3) the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4) Gene-diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n-6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n-3 LC-PUFAs; and (5) opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations.

CONCLUSIONS

The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. schilton@wakehealth.edu.Department of Urology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. rdutta@wakehealth.edu.Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. lireynol@wakehealth.edu.Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. ssergean@wakehealth.edu.GeneSTAR Research Program, General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. rmathias@jhmi.edu.Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. mseeds@wakehealth.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29068398

Citation

Chilton, Floyd H., et al. "Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: a Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases." Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 11, 2017.
Chilton FH, Dutta R, Reynolds LM, et al. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases. Nutrients. 2017;9(11).
Chilton, F. H., Dutta, R., Reynolds, L. M., Sergeant, S., Mathias, R. A., & Seeds, M. C. (2017). Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases. Nutrients, 9(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111165
Chilton FH, et al. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: a Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases. Nutrients. 2017 Oct 25;9(11) PubMed PMID: 29068398.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases. AU - Chilton,Floyd H, AU - Dutta,Rahul, AU - Reynolds,Lindsay M, AU - Sergeant,Susan, AU - Mathias,Rasika A, AU - Seeds,Michael C, Y1 - 2017/10/25/ PY - 2017/09/06/received PY - 2017/10/07/revised PY - 2017/10/19/accepted PY - 2017/10/26/entrez PY - 2017/10/27/pubmed PY - 2018/7/13/medline KW - arachidonic acid KW - eicosanoids KW - endocannabinoids KW - fatty acid desaturase genes KW - gene-diet interaction KW - human disease KW - inflammation KW - omega-3 fatty acids KW - polyunsaturated fatty acids JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 9 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. METHODS: This review summarizes: (1) the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2) the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3) the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4) Gene-diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n-6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n-3 LC-PUFAs; and (5) opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29068398/Precision_Nutrition_and_Omega_3_Polyunsaturated_Fatty_Acids:_A_Case_for_Personalized_Supplementation_Approaches_for_the_Prevention_and_Management_of_Human_Diseases_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu9111165 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -