Intake of Milk or Fermented Milk Combined With Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Relation to Hip Fracture Rates: A Cohort Study of Swedish Women.J Bone Miner Res 2018; 33(3):449-457JB
Milk products may differ in pro-oxidant properties and their effects on fracture risk could potentially be modified by the intake of foods with antioxidant activity. In the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort study, we aimed to determine how milk and fermented milk combined with fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with hip fracture. Women born in 1914-1948 (n = 61,240) answered food frequency and lifestyle questionnaires in 1987-1990 and 38,071 women contributed with updated information in 1997. During a mean follow-up of 22 years, 5827 women had a hip fracture (ascertained via official register data). Compared with a low intake of milk (<1 glass/day) and a high intake of fruits and vegetables (≥5 servings/day), a high intake of milk (≥3 glasses/day) with a concomitant low intake of fruits and vegetables (<2 servings/day) resulted in a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.49 (95% CI, 2.03 to 3.05). This higher hip fracture rate among high consumers of milk was only modestly attenuated with a concomitant high consumption of fruit and vegetables (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.69 to 2.71). The combination of fruits and vegetables with fermented milk (yogurt or soured milk) yielded a different pattern with lowest rates of hip fracture in high consumers: HR, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.97) for ≥2 servings/day of fermented milk and ≥5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables compared with low consumption of both fruit and vegetables and fermented milk. We conclude that the amount and type of dairy products as well as fruit and vegetable intake are differentially associated with hip fracture rates in women. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.